2PrintmakingDescribes a variety of techniques developed to create multiple copies of a single imagePrints in Our Society:NewspapersBooksPostersMagazinesGreeting cardsBillboards
3Printmaking: OriginTechnologies for both printing & papermaking came to Europe from ChinaBy 9th century, China was printing picturesBy 11th century, China invented movable typePrintmaking developed in Europe in 15th century
4PrintmakingIn 19th century, printmakers were still needed to copy drawings, paintings, & even early photographs by making plates to be used, along with movable type, for illustrating newspapers & booksAs photomechanical methods of reproduction were developed in the late 19th century, handwork was not as necessary in the process
5Printmaking: Originals vs Copies Artists have continued to use the old handcrafted printmaking processes to take advantage of their uniquely expressive propertiesBy designing & printing multiple originals, today’s printmakers can sell their works for much less than one-of-a-kind paintings
6Printmaking: Numbering Most all original prints are numbered to indicate the total number of prints pulled, or printed, in the edition, & to give the number of each print in the sequenceExample:The figure 6/50 on a print would indicate that the edition totaled 50 prints & that this was the 6th print pulled
7Printmaking: ProofsAs part of the process, artists make prints called progressive proofs at various states to see how the image on the block, plate, stone, or screen is developingWhen a satisfactory stage is reached, the artist makes a few prints for record & personal useThese are marked AP (artist’s proof)
8Printmaking: Methods Range from simple to complex Divided into 4 basic categories:ReliefIntaglioPlanographic (lithography)Stencil (screenprinting)Contemporary artists are using the old methods in new ways, sometimes combining them with digital techniques
9ReliefThe relief process, is where the printmaker cuts away all parts of the printing surface not meant to carry ink, leaving the design to be printed “in relief” at the level of the original surface. That surface is then inked and the ink is transferred to paper with pressure.Woodcut (woodblock), wood engraving, and linoleum cut (linocut) are various types of relief processes.
10Examples of printmaking in the everyday world include ﬁngerprints, rubber stamps, and marks made by wet tires.When using other colors than black and white, blocks must be registered (lined up) so that colors will be exactly positioned in the ﬁnal print.
11Block printing from woodcuts was ﬁrst employed to spread Buddhism in China. The Diamond Sutra is an example of this technique that can still be observed today.Woodblock printings that ﬂourished in Japan during the nineteenth century were made through a complex process that used many blocks to achieve color effects. Where block printing in China was used to promote religious beliefs, printings in Japan depicted night life scenes, celebrities, landscapes, and erotic pictures.
12Hokusai, a Japanese artist, is known for his color woodcut prints. Although very different in appearance, Hokusaiʼs “The Wave” and Noldeʼs “prophet” were made using the same general technique.
13Linoleum cut (linocut) is a modern development in relief printing, where the artist gouges out areas of a synthetic surface of linoleum. These areas are not intended to take ink.This method could be preferred because it has no grain and can be cut easily in any direction. Elizabeth Catlettʼs “Sharecropper” (as seen below) was made using this particular method.
15Intaglio Opposite of relief Areas below the surface hold the ink Intaglio – from the Italian intagliare “to cut into”Image to be printed is cut or scratched into a metal surface by steel or diamond-tip tools, or etched into the surface by acid
16Intaglio: To Make a Print… First, printmaker daubs the plate with viscous printer’s inkThen, wipe the surface clean, leaving ink only in the etched or grooved portionsNext, damp paper is placed on the inked plateWhich then, passes beneath the press rollerA print is made when the dampened paper picks up the ink in the groovesThe pressure of the roller creates a characteristic plate mark around the edges of the print
17IntaglioTraditionally, intaglio printing was done from polished copper platesNow used:ZincSteelAluminumPlasticTwo Principal Intaglio processesEngravingEtching
18EngravingAn intaglio printmaking process in which grooves are cut into a metal or wood surface with a sharp cutting tool called a burin or graver. Also the resulting print.
19Engraving ProcessLines are made by pushing the burin through the metal to carve a groove.Thousand of fine lines define the shapes, masses, spaces values.Textures of the depicted objects.
20The complex richness of engraved lines in Albrecht Durer’s engraving THE KNIGHT, DEATH AND THE DEVIL.
21Types of EngravingClaw EngravingCopper EngravingWood Engraving
22Etching A printmaking process To begin this process, you must first prepare a metal plate with a protective coating of acid-resistant material that covers the copper or zinc called a ground.Then, the printmaker uses a pointed tool to draw through the ground, exposing the metal, which will create more relaxed or irregular lines than those of engravings.The plate is then immersed into acid.
23Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn Christ Preaching. C. 1652Etching.
24The acid then “bites” into the plate where the drawing has exposed the metal, making a groove that varies in depth according to the strength of the acid and the length of time the plate is in the acid bath.
25Aquatint is an etching process used to obtain shaded areas in black-and-white or color prints. When the plate is put down into the acid, the areas that are exposed between the paint particles are eaten away to produce a rough surface that can hold ink.This in turn produces values that are light or dark.
26In Francisco Goya’s print entitled “The Disaster of War,” he achieves the lightly colored sky and some of the shading on the ground by using aquatint along with etched lines.
27LithographyDeveloped in the early nineteenth century, Lithography is a surface or planographic printing process based on the mutual antipathy of oil and water. Lithography is faster and somewhat more flexible than other methods because of its’ directness while applying the oil or water.
28LithographyPeople can often mistake a lithograph painting with a crayon drawing because they look similar. Another negative aspect of using lithography is that it is very easy to reproduce, and therefore the work sells for less.
29LithographyThe steps required for completing a painting when it comes to using litho crayons, litho pencils, or a greasy liquid called tusche are:First the artist draws the image on a flat, fined-grained Bavarian limestone.Once the image is complete, it is chemically treated with gum arabic and a small amount of acid to “fix” it on the upper layer of the stone.After that the surface is the dampened with water and is inked.
30Lithography Steps continued: The oil-based ink is repelled by the water in the blank areas, but it adheres to the greasy area of the image.The last step is complete once the surface is covered with paper, run through a press, and then transferred to the paper.
31LithographyHonore Daumier was one of the first great lithographic artists. He made his living drawing satirical and documentary lithographs for French newspaper. The work he did reflected his feelings and also would convey information in the way news photographs and television do today.
32ScreenprintingModern screenprinting is a refinement of the ancient and simple technique of stencil printing
33Also known as silkscreen or serigraphy (seri is Latin for silk) Silk was the traditional material used for the screenStencil Technique:Stencil is attached to a screen made of silk fabric stretched across a frameA squeegee is used to push ink through the fabric in the open areas of the stencil to make an image of the stencil on the material being printedSynthetic fabric is used today
34“Exile” Elizabeth Murray - Silkscreen printing was used a lot for poster production and social movements. - The photographic stencil (or photo screen) is the latest development in screenprinting. This is achieved by attaching light-sensitive gelatin to the screen fabric.Ester Hernandez made hundreds of posters declaringChicano identity and attacked the working conditions ofMexican-American laborers.“Sun Mad” Ester Hernandez“Exile” Elizabeth MurrayA “twenty-three color lithograph and screenprintConstruction with collage and pastel.”Layers of screenprinting/silkscreeningScreenprinting to the extreme
35CURRENT DIRECTIONS 1: New types of printing material 2: Digital technologyContemporary methods and technological methods are often mixedPhotomechanical methods of reproduction have taken handwork out of the process
37Digital Technology“Digital technology has altered printmaking at a basic level by eliminating the tangible plate.”This has led to infinitely reproducible prints“Novel means of controlling the size of an edition”Gilbert and George-Downloading time constraint
38CombinationsJapanese woodcut techniques and digital image