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The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600.

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Presentation on theme: "The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600

2 The Franco-Netherlands group (or just Netherlands or Franco-Flemish) After the Burgundians, many prominent musicians grew up and trained in present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands Traveled widely — especially to Italy

3 Johannes Ockeghem (ca. 1410–1497) Singer, composer, director Student of Du Fay, possibly also of Binchois 1443 — choir of Notre Dame 1445 — Burgundian chapel Paris — court of the kings of France – Charles VII through Louis XI

4 Ockeghem’s works Twelve Masses — expanded on Du Fay’s style – cantus firmus type – complex styles — intricacies reflect lingering medievalism Ten motets in new style – monotextual – equality of parts, no c.f. – panconsonance with imperfect consonances – through-composed Twenty chansons — older cantilena type and newer style like motet

5 Ockeghem’s style Scoring – more homogeneous than preceding style – dark sound — dense – low pitch (composer sang bass), added bass part in clearly lower range than tenor Rhythm — fluid Melody — long phrases, little direction Modal — mystical effect Canon — “rule” for realizing several parts out of one — takes place of isorhythm for showing composer’s skill

6 Josquin des Prez (ca. 1450–1521) Regarded in the sixteenth century as culminator of period style, most skillful "Josquin is master of the notes, which must express what he desires; other choral composers must do what the notes dictate." Martin Luther

7 Josquin’s career Netherlands native and died there, wide-ranging career – born in northern France – studied with Ockeghem Travel to Italy — characteristic for Netherlands composers – Milan cathedral 1459 patronage of Sforza dukes 1474–1484 – Rome — Papal chapel 1486–1494 Return to France — royal court 1501 – 1503 Return to Italy — Ferrara, court of Duke Ercole 1503 Netherlands — collegiate church of Condé

8 Josquin’s works Twenty Masses — conservative — often derivative material – cantus firmus – fuga based on paraphrase of preexisting melody – parody – soggetto cavato Ninety-five motets — offered more freedom, textual inspiration than Mass Ordinary – more progressive than Masses – texts from liturgy, Bible, prayer – techniques — c.f., paraphrase, free Ca. seventy secular pieces — most progressive – Netherlands style of chanson — like motet generally more familiar style, rhythmic, syllabic some in fixed forms, others free four parts in fuga or familiar style, rather than older three-part texture – Italian — frottola — lighter Some instrumental (untexted) pieces

9 Secular music in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Amateur music-making Regional traditions

10 Printing and the spread of literacy Johannes Gutenberg (late fourteenth century to 1468) – invention of printing from movable type – Bible completed by 1455

11 Music printing Ottaviano Petrucci (1466–1539) – music printing from movable type – Harmonice musices odhecaton A (Venice, 1501)

12 Music for social use Rise of educated, literate class Musical self-entertainment in the home Musical participation as mark of social status and culture

13 Netherlands chanson Conservative — motet style – polyphonic — fuga – rhythmically fluid Important publisher — Tilman Susato (ca. 1500–1560), Antwerp

14 French chanson Familiar style, rhythmic Composers – Claudin de Sermisy (ca. 1490–1562) — court of Francis I, traveled to Italy with court – Clément Janequin (ca. 1485 to ca. 1560) — church musician, but known mostly for secular pieces onomatopoeic pictorialisms — La Guerre, Le Chant des oiseaux Publisher — Pierre Attaingnant (1494–1552), Paris — from 1528

15 German Lied Monophonic tradition of noble Minnesinger continued by trade-guild Meistersinger Polyphonic pieces tend to older style – often canonic imitation – tenor-oriented – frequently incorporated existing monophonic song tunes Composers – Heinrich Isaac (ca. 1450–1517) – Ludwig Senfl (ca. 1490–1543)

16 Spanish villancico Popular song or modeled on style of popular music Rhythm — strongly marked, generally duple, but rather irregular Texture — homorhythmic; three to four voices, early with text in highest part only, later more parts sung Form — similar to earlier fixed forms – estribillo (refrain) — text abba or abab, music A = abcd – coplas (stanzas), separated by return of estribillo mudanza — text cddc or cdcd, music BB = efef vuelta — text abba or dbab, music A = abcd Composer Juan del Encina (1468 to ca. 1530)

17 Italy — the frottola Vernacular poetry on amorous or satirical topics Syllabic Familiar style (top-voice orientation) Strong, patterned rhythms Simple, diatonic harmony Strophic form Representative composer, Marco (Marchetto) Cara (ca. 1465–1525)

18 Italy — the madrigal Sources – Netherlands-style polyphonic chanson – frottola – excellent poetry Petrarch sonnets — from fourteenth century Italian humanist poets of sixteenth century Stages of development – Netherlands composers — simple, restrained style ex., Jacques Arcadelt (1504–1567) – growing expressive devices, complexity ex., Cipriano de Rore (1516–1565)

19 Questions for discussion Did national taste, the predilections of particular patrons, and the personalities of composers affect music more in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries than in earlier periods? How did the printing of music affect musical style starting in the sixteenth century? Might it have had any negative effects on music? In what ways did the relationship of music to words increase the vitality of music in the sixteenth century? What might music have lost in exchange?

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