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Bell ringer  If the input force is bigger than the output force, then the input distance is __________ than the output distance.  If the output force.

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Presentation on theme: "Bell ringer  If the input force is bigger than the output force, then the input distance is __________ than the output distance.  If the output force."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell ringer  If the input force is bigger than the output force, then the input distance is __________ than the output distance.  If the output force is bigger than the input force, then the input distance is __________ than the output distance.  If the input force is smaller than the output force, then the input distance is __________ than the output distance.  If the output distance is bigger than the input distance, then the input force is __________ than the output force. 5/5/2015

2 Simple Machines Physical Science

3 5/5/2015 Types of Machines:  Simple machines are simple tools used to make work easier.  Compound machines have two or more simple machines working together to make work easier.

4 5/5/2015 Simple Machines  Simple Machine  Does work with one movement... There are six simple machines:  (1) lever  (2) pulley  (3) inclined plane  (4) wedge  (5) screw  (6) wheel and axle

5 5/5/2015 Lever  Lever  Bar that pivots around fixed point. Fixed point = fulcrum

6 5/5/2015 Three Classes of Levers IF F OF 1 st Class Lever F OF IF 2 nd Class Lever F IF OF 3 rd Class Lever IF = Input force F = Fulcrum (pivot point) OF = Output force

7 5/5/2015 Three Classes of Levers  1 st class lever Change direction of force Examples: scissors, seesaw Fulcrum is always between input force and output force in a first- class lever. IF F OF

8 5/5/2015 Three Classes of Levers  2 nd class lever Does not change direction of force Examples: wheelbarrow, paper cutter F OF IF

9 5/5/2015 Three Classes of Levers  3 rd class lever Examples: baseball bat, arm, golf club, tennis racket F E R

10 5/5/2015 Mechanical Advantage and Levers  2 arms of lever: The input arm is the distance between the input force and the fulcrum. The output arm is the distance between the output force and the fulcrum.  If input arm > output arm, IMA > 1  If input arm = output arm, IMA = 1  If input arm < output arm, IMA < 1

11 Output Arm Input Arm Mechanical Advantage and Levers 5/5/2015 Output Arm Input Arm Output Arm IMA = 1 IMA < 1 IMA > 1

12 Which type of lever? 5/5/2015

13 Which type of lever? 5/5/ rd Class Lever

14 Which type of lever? 5/5/2015

15 Which type of lever? 5/5/ rd Class Lever

16 Which type of lever? 5/5/2015

17 Which type of lever? 5/5/ rd Class Lever

18 Which type of lever? 5/5/2015

19 Which type of lever? 5/5/ rd Class Lever

20 Which type of lever? 5/5/2015

21 Which type of lever? 5/5/ rd Class Lever

22 A Crowbar Is A First-Class Lever 5/5/2015 A crowbar is a first-class lever. It changes the direction of the applied force. Because it has a long effort arm and a short resistance arm, it also greatly multiplies the force.

23 5/5/2015 Pulley  Pulley  a chain, belt, or rope wrapped around a wheel… Can change direction or size of Force.

24 5/5/2015 Pulley  Fixed pulley  one that is attached to a ceiling, wall, etc. Only changes the direction of the effort force MA of a single fixed pulley is always one.  Movable pulley  pulley hung on a rope that it moves with the effort force… Can multiply the effort force, but cannot change the direction… MA for movable pulley is always greater than one.

25 A Fixed Pulley  Changes direction of force.  MA = 1  Use just as much force to lift the box as you would by picking it up directly. 5/5/ lbs

26 A Moveable Pulley  Does not change direction of force.  MA = 2  Allows you to lift a 100-pound weight with only 50 pounds of force, but… 5/5/ lbs 50 lbs 2 feet 1 foot

27 5/5/2015 Pulley  You can combine fixed and movable pulleys to increase the MA even more… This is a pulley system…

28 5/5/2015 Pulley Systems IMA = 1 IMA = 2 IMA = 4 IMA pulley = strands of rope that support the mass.

29 5/5/2015 Inclined Plane  Inclined plane  slanted surface used to raise obj. A ramp.  IMA of ramp > 1

30 5/5/2015 Inclined Plane Length of plane Height

31 Without An Inclined Plane 5/5/2015 Force

32 With An Inclined Plane (And Rollers) 5/5/2015 Force

33 5/5/2015 Wedge  Wedge  a V-shaped object whose sides are two inclined planes sloped toward each other. Examples include:  knife blade  razor blade  axe head  a door stopper  Sharpening increases AMA...

34 Wedges 5/5/ Newtons Newtons Compare the force needed to split a piece of wood using each axe head. Which axe head has the higher MA? The sharper axe head has the higher Mechanical Advantage. It takes less force to do the same amount of work.

35 5/5/2015 Screw  Screw  Inclined plane wrapped around cylinder. Closer threads  larger AMA...  Examples: Hardware screw Light bulb base Jar lid

36 Without Screws 5/5/2015 Lifting this gate manually is hard work; it requires lots of force.

37 With Screws 5/5/2015 Screws change rotational motion into straight-line motion. It takes a lot less force to lift the gate, but it takes a longer time.

38 5/5/2015 Wheel and Axle  Wheel and axle  a lever that rotates in a circle… Made of two wheels of different sizes… Axle is a smaller wheel… Larger wheel turns about the smaller axle… Wheel moves through a greater distance; Effort force applied to the wheel is multiplied at the axle… Examples:  Bicycles, Ferris wheels, water wheels, gears…

39 Wheel and Axle  The wheel and axle makes it easier to raise the crate.  Any force applied to the large wheel is multiplied in the smaller axle.  But the wheel must be turned much farther to lift the crate. 5/5/2015

40 Gears  A gear is a modified wheel and axle.  Gears can change the size or direction of a force. 5/5/2015

41 Compound Machines  Compound machines  combination of two or more simple machines…  ***Remember…simple or compound, you can get no more work out of a machine than you put into it!! Machines cannot multiply work!!! An automobile engine is a compound machine made of many simple machines, including pulleys, wheels and axles, levers, and screws.


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