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The Skeletal System. Objectives Identify and describe the five functions of the skeletal system Distinguish between long bones, short bones, flat bones,

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System. Objectives Identify and describe the five functions of the skeletal system Distinguish between long bones, short bones, flat bones,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System

2 Objectives Identify and describe the five functions of the skeletal system Distinguish between long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones; provide examples of each Identify parts of a typical long bone

3 Skeletal System Bones are made of several tissues About 206 bones in the human body

4 Functions of Skeletal System SUPPORT: Hard framework that supports and anchors the soft organs of the body. PROTECTION: Surrounds organs such as the brain and spinal cord. MOVEMENT: Allows for muscle attachment therefore the bones are used as levers. STORAGE: Minerals and lipids are stored within bone material. BLOOD CELL FORMATION: The bone marrow is responsible for blood cell production.

5 Parts of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton –Skull and bones that support it –Includes vertebra and ribs –80 bones Appendicular skeleton –Limbs –126 bones

6 Parts of the Skeletal System 206 bones 4 TYPES BONE –Long bones –Short bones –Flat bones –Irregular bones 2 TYPES BONE TISSUE –Compact –Cancellous (spongy)

7 Classification of Bones: By Shape Long bones – longer than they are wide (e.g., humerus) Designed to absorb stress

8 Classification of Bones: By Shape Short bones –Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle –Equal in length and width

9 Classification of Bones: By Shape Flat bones – thin, flattened, and a bit curved (e.g., sternum, ribs, and most skull bones)

10 Classification of Bones: By Shape Irregular bones – bones with complicated shapes (e.g., vertebrae, face bones, hip bones)

11 Features of a Long Bone: Epiphysis: Ends of the bone. Diaphysis: The shaft of the bone which surrounds the medullary cavity. Articular Cartilage: Cushions the ends of the bones and allows for smooth movement. Epiphyseal Plate: Areas made of cartilage allowing for the growth of the bone.

12 Objectives Describe the inorganic and organic components of bone tissue Distinguish between the 3 types of bone cells on the basis of their functions Understand the role of calcium and phosphorus for bone growth List the axial skeleton components Identify the 8 cranium bones and the 13 facial bones

13 Bone Composition Bone tissue( 1 0 ), cartilage, dense connective tissue, blood-forming tissue, BVs, nerves Bone tissue –Inorganic materials (salts form crystals – hydroxyapatite) Crystals 2/3 total bone weight Provide hardness –Organic materials (collagen) Reinforce/strengthen matrix

14 Types of Bone Cells - 3 Osteoblasts –Arise from embryonic cells –Produce matrix ( mineral salts and collagen) –Contributes to new bone Osteocytes –Mature bone cells –Move nutrients/waste through bone matrix

15 Types of Bone Cells cont. Osteoclasts –‘ Wandering’ bone cells –Secrete substance that dissolves bone matrix back into original components: calcium, phosphorus  work their way into circulatory system –Activity controlled by hormones hence osteoporosis is linked to hormonal changes

16 Types of Bone Cells cont. Osteoblasts giveth. Osteoclasts taketh away. Osteocytes maintaineth. Work together to not only build new bone but to strengthen existing bone –Cracks, fractures

17 Types of Bone Cells cont. –Osteoporosis: rate of bone loss exceeds bone regrowth Osteoclasts reasborbing more bone tissue than osteoblasts are replacing


19 Bone Growth and Minerals Calcium Most common mineral found in body Contributes to bone strength A component in hydroxyapatite Phosphorus codependency 206 bones contain 3 lbs of calcium Phosphorus Second most common mineral found in body Other major component in hydroxyapatite Bones/teeth store 85% of body’s total Calcium codependency

20 The Axial Skeleton Made up of bones that roughly form the body’s “head to toe” vertical axis –Skull –Vertebral column (backbone) –Ribs –Sternum (breastbone)

21 The Skull: Protection for the Brain Set of bones of the head region –Bones of cranium 8 bones –Frontal bone, Parietal bones(2), occipital bone, temporal bones(2), sphenoid bone, ethomoid bone –Facial bones 13 immovable bones –Maxillary bones (2), palatine bones (2), zygomatic bones (2), nasal bones (2), lacrimal bones (2), vomer bone, inferior nasal conchae 1 movable lower jaw –Mandible

22 Bones of the Skull

23 Human Skull, Superior View Slide 5.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.8

24 The Skull

25 Skull – Inferior View

26 Objectives Name and identify the regions of the vertebral column and give the number of vertebrae in each segment Distinguish between three types of ribs Name and identify the components of the pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle List the primary subdivisions of the appendicular skeleton

27 Objectives Compare and contrast pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle –Structure –Purpose –Male vs. female Identify the components of the lower limbs and upper limbs Compare and contrast bones of the arm and forearm with the bones of the thigh and leg

28 Vertebral Column Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs Spine has normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to location

29 Vertebral Column 7 Cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacrum (5 fused) 1 coccyx (4 fused)


31 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae

32 Ribs, Sternum and Thoracic Vertebrae Ribs –True ribs (1 st seven pairs) –False ribs –Floating ribs Sternum Thoracic Vertebrae Coastal cartilage

33 Ribs, Sternum and Thoracic Vertebrae

34 Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle Limbs (appendages) Pelvic girdle

35 Appendicular Skeleton

36 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Composed of two bones –Clavicle (collarbone) –Scapula (shoulder blade) These bones allow the upper limbs to have exceptionally free movement

37 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

38 Bones of the Upper Limb The arm is formed by a single bone –Humerus

39 Bones of the Upper Limb The forearm has two bones –Ulna –Radius

40 Bones of the Upper Limb The hand –Carpals Wrist –Metacarpals Palms –Phalanges Fingers

41 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones –Ilium –Ischium –Pubic bone Total weight of upper body rests on pelvis Protects reprod. organs, urinary bladder, part of large intestine

42 The Pelvis

43 Gender Differences of the Pelvis

44 Bones of the Lower Limbs The thigh has one bone –Femur Thigh

45 Bones of the Lower Limbs The leg has two bones –Tibia –Fibula

46 Bones of the Lower Limbs Foot –Talsus Ankle –Metatarsals Sole –Phalanges Toes

47 Intro to Skeleton

48 Objectives Define joint and the two classifications of joints Distinguish between functional classification and structural classification of joints Identify where in the body the 3 types of functional joints are located Define the 6 types of synovial joints, distinguishing between each in terms of plane movement and example locations

49 Joints Region where two or more bones (or parts of bone) unify  articulation Functions –Holds bone together –Allow for mobility Classified by –Function – how much movement permitted –Structure – diff type of material/mechanism by which bone surfaces interact

50 Functional Classification of Joints 3 Types 1. Synarthrosis –Immovable joints –Ex: Joints between skull bones, tooth in socket 2. Amphiarthrosis –Slightly movable joints –Ex: Joints between tibia and fibula, discs between vertebrae

51 Functional Classification of Joints 3. Diarthrosis –Freely movable joints –Ex: Hip joint, elbow

52 Structural Classification of Joints 3 Types 1. Fibrous joints –United by fibrous tissue –Generally immovable (synarthrosis) 2. Cartilaginous joints –United by cartilage –Immovable or slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)

53 Structural Classification of Joints 3. Synovial joints –Contains joint cavity which contains fluid allowing bones to slide over one another without grinding –Freely movable (diarthrosis)

54 Synovial Joints Classified further according to shape of articular surfaces or movement –Plane joints –Hinge joints –Saddle joints –Condyloid joints –Ball and socket joints –Pivot joints

55 Synovial Joints: Range of Motion Nonaxial – slipping/gliding movement only Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes

56 Synovial Joints Plane Joints – gliding and sliding movement due to the flat articular surface; allow movement in a single plane (nonaxial) –Ex: shoulder blade and collar bone Hinge Joints – Allow movement in a single plane (uniaxial) –Ex: Elbow

57 Synovial Joints Saddle Joints –Shaped like a saddle. Permit movement in two separate planes (biaxial) –Back and forth movement, side – to –side, and some pivotal –Ex: Thumb joint Condyloid(Ellipsoid) Joints –Back and forth movement, circular movement –Joints are biaxial. –Ex: Knuckle

58 Synovial Joints Ball and socket Joints –Consist of spherical head articulating with a dome shaped cup. Allows for movement on multiple planes. (Multiaxial) –Ex: Hip joint Pivot Joints –Allow rotation on one plane. (Uniaxial) –Movement limited to rotation about a central axis –Ex: Joint between 1 st and 2 nd vertebrae




62 Objectives Distinguish between gliding, angular, rotation and misc. categories of movement Define each of the above Provide body examples of each misc. category movement

63 Movements Gliding Angular –Flexion/Extension –Abduction/Adduction –Circumduction Rotation –Medial/Lateral Misc –Elevation/depression –Protraction/retraction –Inversion/Eversion –Pronation/Supination –Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion

64 Gliding Linear motion One plane of motion 2 opposing surfaces pass one another Ex: –Clavicle and sternum

65 Angular Changes in longitudinal position of bone Flexion/Extension/Hyperextension –Flexion: decrease in angle btw bones –Extension: increase in angle btw bones –Hyperextension: extension beyond the standard anatomical position


67 Angular continued Abduction/Adduction/Circumduction –Abduction: movement away from midline –Adduction: movement toward the midline –Circumduction: combination

68 Rotation Spin along a longitudinal axis Medial –Rotation towards the midline Lateral –Rotation away from the midline

69 Misc. Elevation/Depression –Superior & inferior bone movement –Ex: Scapula, mandible Protraction/Retraction –Anterior & Posterior bone movement –Ex: Mandible

70 Misc. cont. Inversion –Inward movement of functional surface; toward midline of the body –Ex: Sole of foot Eversion –Outward movement of functional surface; away from midline of the body –Ex: Sole of foot Inversion/Eversion

71 Misc. cont. Pronation –Eversion of the foot, medial rotation of forearm( toward midline) Supination –Inversion of the foot, lateral rotation of forearm Video

72 Misc. cont. Dorsiflexion –Movement of the foot upward Plantar flexion –Movement of the foot downward

73 Summary video

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