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Skeletal System Allied Health Sciences I 4 th block Melissa Lewis, RN.

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1 Skeletal System Allied Health Sciences I 4 th block Melissa Lewis, RN

2 Skeletal System Makes up our bony framework of our bodies Composed of 206 bones Some bones are hinged (movable) Some bones are fused (can not move)

3 Functions of Skeletal System 1. Supports body structures Provides shape to body 2. Protects inner organs (ex. skull protects brain, ribs protect heart & lungs) 3. Movement & anchorage of muscles 4. Mineral storage (bones store calcium & phosphorus) 5. Hemopoiesis (RBC formation occurs in long bones, sternum, and ilia)

4 Structure of Bones Bones are made up of microscopic cells called osteocytes (mature bone cells) Our bones are made up of: 35% organic material 65% inorganic material, mineral salts, & water Organic material = protein call bone collagen The organic material gives the bone flexibility Inorganic material = mineral salts like calcium, magnesium, sodium, etc. This inorganic material makes the bone very hard & durable

5 Bone Creation During embryo stage Osteoblasts (primitive embryonic cells) secrete protein fiber Then cartilage is deposited in between fibers During 8 th week of embryo development ossification begins Ossification = when mineral matter starts to replace cartilage and bone is created

6 Infant Bones Very soft and pliable because is ossification is not complete Soft spot on anterior fontanel Ossification continues throughout childhood

7 Bone Types 1. Long bones (found in extremities) 2. Flat bones (skull and ribs) 3. Irregular bones (spinal column) 4. Short bones (ankles and wrists) *****The degree of movement of a joint is determined by bone shape and joint structure

8 Structure of a Bone Diaphysis = hollow cylinder of hard compact bone Makes bone hard and smooth yet light enough for movement Medullary canal/cavity inside diaphysis It contains marrow inside where WBC ’ s are formed Epiphyses = ends of the diaphysis This is filled with yellow bone marrow (fat cells, blood vessels, & cells which form into RBC ’ s) Hemopoiesis = blood cell formation occurs here

9 Structure of a Bone cont … Endosteum = lining of marrow canal that keeps cavity intact There are areas of dense/compact bone and some areas of spongy/porous bone Dense/compact = stronger bone

10 Structure of a Bone cont … Periosteum = covering on the outside of bone Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, & nerves Periosteum is necessary for bone growth, repair, and nutrition

11 Bone Growth Bones grow in length from the middle outward Bones grow in circumference by adding more bone to the outer surface of the diaphysis osteoblasts (they deposit new bone) As the circumference increases, bone material from the center part of the diaphysis is dissolving making an internal cavity/canal Osteoclasts are very large bone cells that secrete enzymes. They are responsible for the inner bone dissolving.

12 Bone Growth cont … This canal/cavity fills with marrow and cells that eventually produce WBC & RBC When epiphyseal cartilage ossifies growth stops If cartilage present = still growing No cartilage present = finished growing Average growth for females continues to 18 years old, males 20-21years old If bone is fractured, bones cells near break will become active and create new bone

13 Parts of the Skeletal System 1. Axial skeleton = skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum (breastbone), hyoid bone Hyoid bone is a u-shaped bone in neck to which the tongue attaches 2. Appendicular skeleton = upper extremities; should girdles, arms, wrists, hands and lower extremities; hip girdle, leg, ankles, and feet

14 Axial Skeleton Skull made up of cranium and facial bones Cranium protects brain Cranial bones are thin and slightly curved During infancy bones are connected by connective tissue called a suture (immovable joints) Facial bones protect eyes, ear, nose, and mouth Some facial bones are bone & cartilage (ex. Top of bridge of nose is bone, bottom is cartilage)

15 Axial Skeleton cont … 22 bones in skull 8 bones in cranium 1 Frontal (forehead) 2 parietal (roof & sides of skull) 2 temporal (ears) 1 occipital (base of skull which contains foramen magnum) 1 ethmoid (located b/w eyes creates nasal septum) 1 sphenoid (look like bat) other bones connect to it

16 14 Facial Bones 5 nasal 2 nasal for bridge of nose 1 vomer (lower part) 2 inferior concha (side walls of nasal cavity) 2 maxilla – upper jaw 2 lacrimal – inner aspects of eyes (tear ducts) 2 zygomatic – cheek bones 2 palatine – hard palate of mouth 1 mandible – lower jaw (only movable bone in face)

17 Spinal Column/Vertebra Strong and flexible Supports head Provides attachment for ribs Spine encloses spinal cord of nervous system Spine is made up of small bones called vertebraes Each vertebrae is separated from the next vertebrae by pads of cartilage called intervertebral disks These disks act like shock absorbers As we age these disks become thinner, thus height shrinking

18 Vertebral Column Divided into 5 sections named according to their body location 7 Cervical – neck area Atlas – first cervical vertebrae, articulates with occipital bone in skull, allows us to nod our head (nod head “ YES ” ) Axis – second cervical vertebrae, Odontoid process – forms pivot point with atlas, allow us to turn our heads (nod head “ NO ” ) 5 lumbar – large vertebrae in back Bears most of body weight Sacrum – (pelvic girdle) five fused bones, articulation point for hips Coccyx (tailbone) four fused bones

19 Spinal Column/Vertebra cont … Spinal nerves enter and leave spinal cord through openings (foramen) b/w vertebrae Spine is curved to make it stronger than a straight one would be

20 Basic Vertebra Parts Body – large, solid part Foramen – central opening for spinal cord Processes – 2 wing-like bony structures above foramen Spinous process (spine) Articular processes

21 Sternum Thoracic area of body is protected and supported by thoracic vertebrae, ribs, & sternum Sternum (breastbone) is divided into 3 parts Manubrium (upper region) The body Xiphoid process (lower cartilage part) Clavicles (collar bones) are attached to upper sternum by ligaments

22 Ribs We have 12 pairs of ribs True ribs – 1 st 7 pairs (attach directly to sternum) False ribs - next 3 pairs of ribs (attach to 7 th rib instead of sternum) Floating ribs – last 2 pairs of ribs (don ’ t connect to sternum or other ribs)

23 Appendicular Skeleton Included bones from upper and lower extremities (126 bones) 1. Shoulder Girdle (made up of 4 bones) 2 curved clavicles (collar bones) Attach scapulae to sternum Helps to brace shoulder and prevent excessive forward motion 2 triangular scapulae (shoulder bones) Arm attaches to torso here Muscles from arm attach here to allow for movement

24 Appendicular Skeleton: Arm Bones of arm = humerus, radius, and ulna Humerus = upper arm bone Second largest bone in body Top of humerus articulates with scapulae Radius and ulna = lower arm bones Radius = is bone that runs up thumb side of forearm Ulna = largest bone is forearm Upper end of ulna = Olecranon process = forms elbow (funny bone)

25 Appendicular Skeleton: Hand Hand has 27 bones Wrist bones = carpals Hand made up of 2 parts Palmer surface with 5 metacarpal bones 5 fingers with 14 phalanges Each finger has 3 phalanges Thumb has only 2 phalanges (most flexible finger)

26 Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle In youth pelvic girdle has 3 bones Ilium, ischium, & pubis These bones eventually fuse together to form a bowl-shaped structure (pelvic girdle) A joint is formed called symphysis pubis in front A joint is formed called sacroiliac in back with sacrum

27 Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle cont … The pelvic girdle serves as attachment for bones and muscles of the leg Also provides support for lower abdomen The pelvis in a female is much wider than male (necessary for child- bearing)

28 Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Leg The upper leg contains the femur (thigh bone) which is the largest and strongest bone in the body The top of the femur has a smooth, round head that fits into the cavity of the ilium known as the acetabulum forming a ball and socket joint

29 Appendicular Skeleton: Lower Leg Lower leg has 2 bones = tibia & fibula Tibia is the largest of these 2 bones The patella (kneecap) is found in front of the knee joint

30 Appendicular Skeleton: Ankle The ankle bone = tarsus Tarsus contains 7 tarsal bones These tarsals connect the foot to the leg bones The largest ankle bone is the heel bone (calcaneus) The ankle allows the foot to extend and flex when walking

31 Appendicular Skeleton: Foot The foot contains 5 metatarsal bones The metatarsal and tarsal bones join to form 2 arches: Longitudinal &Perpendicular These arches strengthen the foot and provide flexibility and springiness to stride The downward pressure and weight of the body slowly flattens these arches over time (called “ fallen arches or flatfeet ” )

32 Appendicular Skeleton: Foot cont … Sx of “ flatfeet or fallen arches ” = pain & fatigue Factors that lead to “ flatfeet ” = improper poor nutrition, fatigue, overweight, poor posture, and improperly fitting shoes All toes have 3 phalanges in each except the big toes which only has 2 phalanges Each foot has 14 phalanges

33 Joints & Related Structures Joints/articulations = points of contact b/w 2 bones These joints are classified into 3 main types according to their degree of movement 1. Diathroses (movable joints) 2. Amphiarthroses (partially movable joints) 3. Synarthroses (immovable joints)

34 Diathroses Joints Most of our joints are diathroses They have 3 main parts: cartilage, bursa, & synovial cavity The 2 movable bones meet at a joint but do not touch The 2 surfaces are covered with smooth, slippery cartilage This cartilage acts like a shock absorber and prevents friction Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid (a lubricant) into the synovial cavity (area between the two cartilages) Synovial fluid decreases friction of joint movement Bursa sacs are located b/w muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones Inflammation of these areas = bursitis

35 Types of Diarthroses Joints: 1. Ball and Socket joints Allow for the greatest amount of movement Examples = shoulders and hip joints 2. Hinge joints Move in only one direction Exampes = knees and elbows 3. Pivot joints Rotation joints Examples = radius and ulna, atlas and axis joint 4. Gliding joints Flat surfaces glide across each other Examples = vertebrae of spine

36 Amphiarthroses Joints Partially movable joints Have cartilage b/w articular surfaces Examples = attachment of ribs to spine and symphysis pubis (joint b/w 2 pelvic bones

37 Synarthroses Joints Immovable joints Found in cranium

38 Types of Motion: Define from book Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Circumduction Rotation Pronation Supination

39 Common Skeletal Disorders Fracture = broken bone 1. Closed reduction – cast or splint is applied to immobilize joint 2. Open reduction – surgery (wires, metal plates, or screws used to hold bones in place) and cast or splint applied 3. Traction – pulling force is used to hold bones in alignment

40 Common Types of Fractures 1. Closed/simple – broken bones that do not pierce through skin 2. Open/compound – most serious type of fracture, bones pierce through skin, worry about infection 3. Greenstick – simplest type of fracture, bone is partially bent but never completely separates 4. Comminuted – bone is splintered or broken into many pieces that embed in surrounding tissues

41 Bone or Joint Injuries 1. Dislocation Bone is displaced from proper position in a joint Tearing and stretching of ligaments can occur

42 Bone or Joint Injuries Sprain Injury to a joint caused by any sudden or unusual motion such as turning an ankle Ligaments are torn from their attachment or torn across Joint is not dislocated Strain

43 Diseases of the Bone 1. Arthritis – inflammatory condition of one or more joints accompanied by pain and often changes in bone position Types of arthritis: Rheumatoid – chronic autoimmune (when body ’ s own immune system attacks tissues) disease, affects more women than men Osteoarthritis – degenerative joint disease, occurs with aging,

44 Diseases of the Bone cont … 2. Gout – increase of uric acid in bloodstream, these crystals build up in joints and kidneys, common site = great toe, lots of pain 3. Rickets – usually found in children, caused by lack of vitamin D, caused bone deformities (bowlegs and pigeon chest) Prevention = calcium, vit D, and sunlight

45 Diseases of the Bone cont … 4. Slipped (herniated disc) – disc ruptures or protrudes out of place Places pressure on spinal nerves 5. Whiplash injury – trauma to cervical vertebra

46 Abnormal Curvatures of Spine 1. Kyphosis (hunchback) = humped curvature in thoracic spine area 2. Lordosis (swayback) = exaggerated inward curvature in lumbar spine area 3. Scoliosis = side-to-side or lateral curvature of spine

47 Other Disorders 1. Osteoporosis Affects mainly women Mineral density in bones is greatly reduced With aging you lose calcium and phosphorus, thus bones more porous (less strong) 2. Osteomyelitis = bone infection Occurs most in children from injuries or systemic infection 3. Osteosarcoma = bone cancer

48 THE END!!! Next unit is Muscular System


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