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Articulations A look at the structural and functional classification of joints and the movements they provide.

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Presentation on theme: "Articulations A look at the structural and functional classification of joints and the movements they provide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulations A look at the structural and functional classification of joints and the movements they provide

2 Joints Rigid elements of the skeleton meet at joints or articulations Rigid elements of the skeleton meet at joints or articulations Greek root “arthro” means joint Greek root “arthro” means joint Articulations can be: Articulations can be: Bone to bone Bone to bone Bone to cartilage Bone to cartilage Teeth in bony sockets Teeth in bony sockets Structure of joints Structure of joints Enables resistance to crushing, tearing, and other forces Enables resistance to crushing, tearing, and other forces

3 Classifications of Joints Joints can be classified by function or structure Joints can be classified by function or structure Functional classification – based on amount of movement Functional classification – based on amount of movement Synarthroses – Synarthroses – immovable – common in axial skeleton immovable – common in axial skeleton Amphiarthroses – Amphiarthroses – slightly movable – common in axial skeleton slightly movable – common in axial skeleton Diarthroses – Diarthroses – freely movable – common in appendicular skeleton freely movable – common in appendicular skeleton

4 Classifications of Joints Structural classification based on: Structural classification based on: Material that binds bones together Material that binds bones together Presence or absence of a joint cavity Presence or absence of a joint cavity Structural classifications include Structural classifications include Fibrous Fibrous Fibrous Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Synovial Synovial Synovial

5 Synarthroses Immovable joints Immovable joints Do not have a joint cavity Do not have a joint cavity May be Fibrous or Cartilagenous May be Fibrous or Cartilagenous sutures – i.e. coronal suture sutures – i.e. coronal suture Synchondrosis – epiphyseal plates Synchondrosis – epiphyseal plates Gomphoses – i.e. your teeth! Gomphoses – i.e. your teeth!

6 Synarthroses: Sutures Bones are tightly bound by a minimal amount of fibrous tissue Bones are tightly bound by a minimal amount of fibrous tissue Only occur between the bones of the skull Only occur between the bones of the skull Allow bone growth so that the skull can expand with brain during childhood Allow bone growth so that the skull can expand with brain during childhood

7 Synarthroses: Gomphoses Tooth in a socket Tooth in a socket Connecting ligament – the periodontal ligament Connecting ligament – the periodontal ligament

8 Synarthroses: Synchondroses Cartilaginous Synarthritic Joints Cartilaginous Synarthritic Joints Joint between first rib and manubrium Joint between first rib and manubrium Hyaline cartilage unites bones Hyaline cartilage unites bones Epiphyseal plates Epiphyseal plates

9 Amphiarthroses Slightly movable joints Slightly movable joints No joint cavity No joint cavity Amphiarthroses may be Amphiarthroses may be Fibrous Fibrous cartilagenous cartilagenous

10 Amphiarthroses: Syndesmoses Fibrous Amphiarthritic Joints Fibrous Amphiarthritic Joints Bones are connected exclusively by ligaments Bones are connected exclusively by ligaments Amount of movement depends on length of fibers Amount of movement depends on length of fibers

11 Amphiarthroses: Symphyses Cartilaginous Amphiarthritic Joint Cartilaginous Amphiarthritic Joint Fibrocartilage unites bones – resists tension and compression Fibrocartilage unites bones – resists tension and compression Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility Intervertebral discs Intervertebral discs Pubic symphysis Pubic symphysis

12 Diarthroses Most movable type of joint Most movable type of joint Diarthroses are synovial Diarthroses are synovial Each contains a fluid-filled joint cavity called a synovial cavity. Each contains a fluid-filled joint cavity called a synovial cavity.

13 A Typical Synovial Joint Fibrous Capsule Synovial Membrane Synovial Joint Cavity Articular Cartilage Cartilage (Articular) Disc

14 How Synovial Joints Function Synovial joints – lubricating devices Synovial joints – lubricating devices Friction could overheat and destroy joint tissue Friction could overheat and destroy joint tissue Are subjected to compressive forces Are subjected to compressive forces Fluid is squeezed out as opposing cartilages touch Fluid is squeezed out as opposing cartilages touch Cartilages ride on the slippery film Cartilages ride on the slippery film

15 Factors Influencing Joint Stabililty Articular surfaces Articular surfaces seldom play a major role in joint stability seldom play a major role in joint stability Exceptions: the elbow, the knee and the hip do provide stability Exceptions: the elbow, the knee and the hip do provide stability Ligaments Ligaments the more ligaments in a joint, the stronger it is the more ligaments in a joint, the stronger it is Muscle tone Muscle tone the most important factor in joint stability the most important factor in joint stability keeps tension on muscle tendons keeps tension on muscle tendons

16 Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints Three basic types of movement Three basic types of movement Gliding – one bone across the surface of another Gliding – one bone across the surface of another Angular movement – movements change the angle between bones Angular movement – movements change the angle between bones Rotation – movement around a bone's long axis Rotation – movement around a bone's long axis And a host of “special movements” And a host of “special movements” Supination / Pronation Supination / Pronation Dorsiflexion / Plantar flextion Dorsiflexion / Plantar flextion Inversion / Eversion Inversion / Eversion Projection / Retraction Projection / Retraction Elevation / Depression Elevation / Depression Opposition Opposition

17 Gliding Joints Flat surfaces of two bones slip across each other Flat surfaces of two bones slip across each other Gliding occurs between Gliding occurs between Carpals Carpals Articular processes of vertebrae Articular processes of vertebrae Tarsals Tarsals

18 Angular Movements Increase or decrease angle between bones Increase or decrease angle between bones Movements involve: Movements involve: Flexion and Extension Flexion and Extension Flexion: movement decreases the joint angle Flexion: movement decreases the joint angle Extension: movement that increases the joint angle Extension: movement that increases the joint angle Abduction and Adduction Abduction and Adduction Abduction: movement away from midline Abduction: movement away from midline Adduction: movement towards midline Adduction: movement towards midline Circumduction Circumduction Circular motion allowed by a joint Circular motion allowed by a joint

19 Angular Movements

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22 Rotation Involves turning movement of a bone around its long axis Involves turning movement of a bone around its long axis The only movement allowed between atlas and axis vertebrae The only movement allowed between atlas and axis vertebrae Occurs at the hip and shoulder joints Occurs at the hip and shoulder joints

23 Special Movements Supination Supination forearm rotates laterally & palm faces anteriorly forearm rotates laterally & palm faces anteriorly Pronation Pronation forearm rotates medially & palm faces posteriorly forearm rotates medially & palm faces posteriorly

24 Special Movements Dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion lifting the foot so its superior surface approaches the shin lifting the foot so its superior surface approaches the shin Plantar flexion Plantar flexion depressing the foot – pointing the toes downward depressing the foot – pointing the toes downward

25 Special Movements Inversion Inversion turning the sole medially turning the sole medially Eversion Eversion turning the sole laterally turning the sole laterally

26 Special Movements Protraction Protraction nonangular movement of jutting out the jaw nonangular movement of jutting out the jaw Retraction Retraction opposite movement to protraction opposite movement to protraction

27 Special Movements Elevation Elevation lifting a body superiorly lifting a body superiorly Depression Depression moving the elevated part inferiorly moving the elevated part inferiorly

28 Special Movements Opposition Opposition movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers

29 Synovial Joints Classified by Structure Plane joint Plane joint Articular surfaces are flat planes Articular surfaces are flat planes Short gliding movements are allowed Short gliding movements are allowed Intertarsal and intercarpal joints Intertarsal and intercarpal joints Movements are nonaxial Movements are nonaxial Gliding does not involve rotation around any axis Gliding does not involve rotation around any axis Considered a translational movment Considered a translational movment

30 Synovial Joints Classified by Structure Hinge joints Hinge joints Cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough on another bone Cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough on another bone Angular movement is allowed in one plane Angular movement is allowed in one plane Elbow, ankle, and joints between phalanges Elbow, ankle, and joints between phalanges Movement is uniaxial – allows movement around one axis only Movement is uniaxial – allows movement around one axis only

31 Pivot joints Pivot joints Classified as uniaxial Classified as uniaxial rotating bone only turns around its long axis rotating bone only turns around its long axis Examples Examples Proximal radioulnar joint Proximal radioulnar joint Joint between atlas and axis Joint between atlas and axis Synovial Joints Classified by Structure

32 Condyloid (Saddle) joints Condyloid (Saddle) joints Allow moving bone to travel: Allow moving bone to travel: Side to side – abduction-adduction Side to side – abduction-adduction Back and forth – flexion-extension Back and forth – flexion-extension Classified as biaxial Classified as biaxial movement occurs around two axes movement occurs around two axes

33 Synovial Joints Classified by Structure Saddle joints Saddle joints Each articular surface has concave and convex surfaces Each articular surface has concave and convex surfaces Classified as biaxial joints Classified as biaxial joints

34 Synovial Joints Classified by Structure Ball-and-socket joints Ball-and-socket joints Spherical head of one bone fits into round socket of another Spherical head of one bone fits into round socket of another Classified as multiaxial – allow movement in all axes Classified as multiaxial – allow movement in all axes Examples: shoulder and hip joints Examples: shoulder and hip joints

35 General Joint Concerns & Issues Structure of joints makes them prone to traumatic stress Structure of joints makes them prone to traumatic stress Function of joints makes them subject to friction and wear Function of joints makes them subject to friction and wear Affected by inflammatory and degenerative processes Affected by inflammatory and degenerative processes

36 Joint Injuries Sprains – ligaments of a reinforcing joint are stretched or torn Sprains – ligaments of a reinforcing joint are stretched or torn Dislocation – occurs when the bones of a joint are forced out of alignment Dislocation – occurs when the bones of a joint are forced out of alignment Luxation = complete dislocation Luxation = complete dislocation Subluxation = partial dislocation Subluxation = partial dislocation Torn cartilage – common injury to meniscus of knee joint Torn cartilage – common injury to meniscus of knee joint

37 Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa do to injury or friction Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa do to injury or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of a tendon sheath Tendonitis – inflammation of a tendon sheath Arthritis – describes over 100 kinds of joint-damaging diseases Arthritis – describes over 100 kinds of joint-damaging diseases Osteoarthritis – most common type – “wear and tear” arthritis Osteoarthritis – most common type – “wear and tear” arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis – a chronic inflammatory disorder Rheumatoid arthritis – a chronic inflammatory disorder Gouty arthritis (gout) – uric acid build-up causes pain in joints Gouty arthritis (gout) – uric acid build-up causes pain in joints Lyme disease – inflammatory disease often resulting in joint pain Lyme disease – inflammatory disease often resulting in joint pain

38 Additional Joint Information Anatomy of Shoulder, Elbow, Hip & Knee Joints

39 Selected Synovial Joints - Shoulder Shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint – General Characteristics Shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint – General Characteristics The most freely movable joint – lacks stability The most freely movable joint – lacks stability Articular capsule is thin and loose Articular capsule is thin and loose Muscle tendons contribute to joint stability Muscle tendons contribute to joint stability

40 Glenohumeral Joint

41 Selected Synovial Joints Elbow joint – General Characteristics Elbow joint – General Characteristics Allows flexion and extension Allows flexion and extension The humerus’ articulation with ulna forms the hinge The humerus’ articulation with ulna forms the hinge Tendons of biceps and triceps brachii provide stability Tendons of biceps and triceps brachii provide stability

42 Elbow Joint

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44 Selected Synovial Joints Hip joint – General Characteristics Hip joint – General Characteristics A ball-and-socket structure A ball-and-socket structure Movements occur in all axes – limited by ligaments and acetabulum Movements occur in all axes – limited by ligaments and acetabulum Head of femur articulates with acetabulum Head of femur articulates with acetabulum Muscle tendons contributes to stability, however Muscle tendons contributes to stability, however Stability comes chiefly from acetabulum and capsular ligaments Stability comes chiefly from acetabulum and capsular ligaments

45 Frontal Section and Anterior View of the Hip Joint

46 Posterior View of the Hip Joint Figure 9.13c, d

47 Selected Synovial Joints Knee joint – General Characteristics Knee joint – General Characteristics The largest and most complex joint The largest and most complex joint Primarily acts as a hinge joint Primarily acts as a hinge joint Has some capacity for rotation when leg is flexed Has some capacity for rotation when leg is flexed Two fibrocartilage menisci occur within the joint cavity Two fibrocartilage menisci occur within the joint cavity

48 Sagittal Section of Knee Joint Superior View of Knee Joint

49 Anterior View of Flexed Knee


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