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The Skeletal System Chapter 36 Section 1 Notes. Keys Lecture Outline – The Skeletal System PowerPoint Notes textbook questions.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System Chapter 36 Section 1 Notes. Keys Lecture Outline – The Skeletal System PowerPoint Notes textbook questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System Chapter 36 Section 1 Notes

2 Keys Lecture Outline – The Skeletal System PowerPoint Notes textbook questions

3 Skeletal System Functions MMMMakes up body framework - gives body shape SSSSupports the body PPPProtects vital internal organs

4 MMMMakes up body framework - gives body shape SSSSupports the body PPPProtects vital internal organs

5 Functions continued… PPPProvides for movement SSSStores mineral reserves PPPProduces red blood cells

6 Bone Composition BBBBone is living tissue. IIIIt is a solid network of cells and protein fibers surrounded by deposits of minerals. CCCComponents: 332% Organic materials (collagen and bone cells) 443% Minerals (calcium and phosphorous) 225% Water

7 Bone Cells  There are four main types of bone cells in bone tissue.  Osteogenic cells respond to traumas, such as fractures, by giving rise to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.  Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) synthesize and secrete unmineralized ground substance and are found in areas of high metabolism within the bone.  Osteocytes are mature bone cells made from osteoblasts that have made bone tissue around themselves.  Osteoclasts are large cells that break down bone tissue. They are very important to bone growth, healing, and remodeling.

8 Skeletal Tissue  4 main types  Compact bone  Spongy bone  Cartilage  Fibroblasts spongy compactcartilagefibroblasts Ligament

9 Anatomy of a Typical Long Bone Femur Structure of Bone

10 Structure of bone  Taking a closer look: A cross- section of the long bone. Periosteum covers bone, is a place for tendon and ligament attachment, and brings blood, lymph vessels and nerves into the bone. Compact bone is a dense layer of bone tissue composed of cylinders or tubes of mineral crystals and protein fibers, that give bone its strength. Spongy bone is the inside layer of compact bone that is actually quite strong but lacy in appearance and contains red marrow which produces blood cells. Bone marrow (primarily yellow marrow) stores fat that serves as an energy reserve and contains blood vessels and nerve cells. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

11 Structure of Bone  Here is another diagram  Just to help give you that visual to remember all of this! Haversian canal Haversian canal are interconnected networks of tubes that blood vessels and nerves run through. Blood vessels carry nourishment to the living bone tissue as well as removing wastes Osteocytes are responsible for bone growth and changes in the shape of bone and can either deposit or absorb calcium salts

12 Structure of Bone  Notice… Hyalin cartilage covers the ends of bones where they articulate (join) with other bones.  As adulthood is reached, the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) is replaced by bone and fuses, thus completing growth.

13 Structure of Bone What parts do you remember? Let’s Quiz Ourselves! BBBBlood vessels BBBBone marrow CCCCompact bone HHHHaversian canal OOOOsteocyte PPPPeriosteum SSSSpongy bone {

14 Bones of the skeleton contain a combination of spongy and compact bone. Do you recognize the bone at the left? What classification (type) of bone is it? What type of bone marrow is found within the spaces of the spongy bone? Skull Bone A flat bone Red Marrow

15 Bone Formation  Called Ossification- Process of producing bone from cartilage  ________ is replaced by _________ which secrete ________deposits and then mature into __________(bone cells).  ___________ break down bone and remove _________bone tissue when a bone is broken. Cartilage osteoblasts mineral osteocytes Osteoclasts damaged x

16 Bone Formation  The _______ plate (epiphyseal disc) is an area of _______ in the _____of long bones where bone _________ occurs. lengthening growth cartilage ends Growth in Length

17 10 week fetus Cartilage bone of the skull Intramembranous ossification produces the roofing bones of the skull Primary ossification centers of the diaphyses (skeleton of the lower limb) Future hip bone Bone Formation  The basic shape of a long bone, such as an arm bone, is first formed as cartilage  Bone growth begins long before birth.

18 Bone Formation 12 week fetus 16 week fetus Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth

19 Bone Formation  Babies are born with 350 bones, many are composed almost entirely of cartilage.  Latter the cartilage cells will be replaced by cells that form the bones. (ossification) Long bones develop and grow through out childhood at the centers of ossification (growth plates) The SOFT SPOT of a babie’s skull will fuse around age 2, but growth of the skull continues until adulthood. The SOFT SPOT of a babie’s skull will fuse around age 2, but growth of the skull continues until adulthood.

20 Bone Formation BBBBetween the ages of 16 and 25 years, all of the cartilage of the epiphyseal disc is replaced by bone. This is called closure of the epiphyseal disc, and the bone lengthening process stops. Stages of Ossification

21 Bone Formation GROWTH INW IDTH

22 Bones of the Skeleton The adult skeleton contains _____ bones The adult skeleton contains _____ bones 206

23 Name That Bone  carpals  clavicle  coccyx  femur  fibula  humerus  mandible  metacarpals  metatarsals  patella  phalanges  pelvis  radius  ribs  sacrum  scapula  skull  sternum  tarsals  tibia  ulna  vertebrae Do you recognize these 22 bones?

24 Divisions of Skeleton Axial and Appenicular Skeletons

25 Axial Skeleton TTTTHE AXIAL SKELETON - CONSIST OF THE SKULL, VERTEBRAL COLUMN, AND THE RIB CAGE SSSSkull VVVVertebral column RRRRib cage (ribs + sternum) Skull

26 Skull Bones * The Skull consists of 8 CRANIAL BONES + 13 FACIAL BONES 13 FACIAL BONES * The Ears consists of 6 BONES and 6 BONES and * Floating in the throat is 1 HYOID BONE Inner Ear

27 Rib Cage AAAAlso called the Thoracic Cage 11112 pairs of RIBS 7777 true ribs 5555 false ribs 2222 floating ribs  1 1 1 1 STERNUM (breastbone)

28 Vertebral Column TTTThe Vertebral Column (Spinal Column or Backbone) 7777 CERVICAL (NECK) VERTEBRAE, 11112 THORACIC 5555 LUMBAR, 5555 FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 SACRUM, 4444 SMALL FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 COCCYX (YOUR TAIL BONE)

29 Appendicular Skeleton  THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON – consists of bones of the:  ARMS (upper limbs)  LEGS (lower limbs)  SHOULDER GIRDLE (pectoral girdle)  HIP GIRDLE (pelvic girdle)

30 Shoulder Girdles and Arms  The Shoulder girdle is also called the pectoral girdle  Consists of 4 bones  Upper limbs consist of 60 bones (the hands and wrist contain 54 separate bones).

31 Hip Girdles and Legs  The hip girdle is also called the pelvic girdle  Consists of 2 bones  Lower limbs consist of 60 bones (the ankles and feet contain 52 separate bones)

32 Comparison of Skletons  The Human Skeleton is homologous to skeletons of other animals. Once you learn the bones in a human, you can identify the bones in other animals. cat rat horse

33 Bone Classification by Shape 5555 Types LLLLong SSSShort FFFFlat IIIIrregular ssssesamoid

34 Shapes of Bones LLLLong bones are longer than they are wide and work as levers. The bones of the upper and lower extremities (ex. humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.) are of this type. SSSShort bones are short, cube- shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles. FFFFlat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles (ex. cranial bones, ribs, and bones of hip and shoulder girdles). IIIIrregular bones are all others that do not fall into the previous categories. They have varied shapes, sizes, and surface features and include the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the skull.

35 Types of Bones 1. The humerus and femur are examples of _______ bone. 2. Tarsal and carpal bones are examples of _______ bone. 3. Sternum and many skull bones are examples of ________bone. 4. Vertebrae and the patella are examples of _______ bone. long short flat irregular

36 Joints  JOINTS: WHERE TWO or MORE BONES MEET  Joints are responsible for keeping bones far enough apart so they do not rub against each other as they move, preventing damage.  At the same time, joints hold the bones in place.  Different joints permit different amounts of movement.  Joints are classified by the amount and type of movement they permit.

37 Classification of Joints  Three Main Types  Immovable- A fixed joint, one that allows no movement  bones of skull, pelvis, and sacrum  Slightly movable- joint that permits a small amount of restricted movement  between vertebrae, two bones of lower leg  Freely movable- Permit movement in one or more directions

38 Classification of Joints  Immovable  bones of skull, pelvis, and sacrum pelvis, and sacrum  Slightly movable  between vertebrae, two bones of lower leg two bones of lower leg Tibia and Fibula skullPelvis Vertebra Ribs

39 Freely Movable Joints  TYPES OF FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS  A. BALL AND SOCKET JOINT – Permits circular movement - the widest range of movement.  SHOULDER Joint- which enables you to move your arm up, down, forward and backward, as well as to rotate it in a complete circle.  HIP Joint- same range of motion.

40 Types of Freely Movable Joints Continued BBBB. HINGED JOINT - Permits a back- and-forth motion. TTTThe Knee- enables your leg to flex and extend. TTTThe Elbow -allows you to move your forearm forward and backward. TTTThe Phalanges CCCC. PIVOT JOINT - Permits rotation of one bone around another. TThe elbow enables your hand to turn over. (radius rotates around ulna) II t also allows you to turn your head from side to side. (atlas rotates around axis)

41  D. GLIDING JOINT - Permits a sliding motion of one bone over another.  Found at ends of the collarbones,  between wrist bones,  and between anklebones.  E. SADDLE JOINT- Permits movement in two planes.  This type of joint is found at the base of the thumb Click Here

42 Anatomy of a Joint  2 or more bones  Cartilage  Joint capsule  Synovial membrane  Synovial fluid  Fat  Bursa  Meniscus  Ligaments  Tendons Structures of a freely movable joint

43 Anatomy of a Joint  Cartilage - at the joint, the bones are covered with cartilage, which is wear-resistant and helps reduce the friction of movement.  Joint capsule- is a thick, tough layer that envelops the joint cavity forming a membrane or sac that adheres firmly to the periosteum of the articulating bones

44 Anatomy of a Joint  Synovial membrane - a tissue that lines the joint and seals it into a joint capsule. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid.  Synovial fluid - a clear, sticky fluid secreted by the synovial membrane to lubricate the joint.

45 Anatomy of a Joint  Fat- Helps pad and cushion the joint.  Bursa- fluid-filled sac between adjacent structures such as ligaments or bones which help reduce friction in a joint, cushion it, and absorb shock.  Meniscus- wedge shaped cartilage, curved like the letter "C" at the inside and outside of each knee. A strong stabilizing tissue, helps the knee joint carry weight, and glide and turn in many directions. It also keeps your femur and tibia from grinding against each other.

46 Anatomy of a Joint lllligaments - tough, elastic bands of connective tissue ssssurround the joint to give support and limit the joint's movement. AAAAttach bone to bone ttttendons – another type of tough connective tissue  o o o on each side of a joint attached to muscles that control movement of the joint. AAAAttach muscle to bone Knee Joint

47 Skeletal Disorders  A broken bone is known as a fracture. This can simply be a crack or buckle in the structure of the bone, or a complete break, producing two or more fragments. Fractures Fractures

48 Skeletal Disorders The repair of bone fractures is similar to embryonic bone formation. Bone Fracture Repair

49  Consists of more than 100 different conditions  The common denominator for all these conditions is joint pain  Osteoarthritis- nick-named “wear and tear” arthritis  Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most crippling forms of arthritis. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the lining of joints.  Arthritis- inflammation of the joints Arthritis

50 Skeletal Disorders  Osteoporosis- literally means "porous bones“  Occurs when a body's blood calcium level is low and calcium from bones is dissolved into the blood to maintain a proper balance.  Over time, bone mass and bone strength decrease. As a result, bones become dotted with pits and pores, weak and fragile, and break easily.  Other factors besides age can lead to osteoporosis, such as a diet low in calcium and protein, a lack of vitamin D, smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and insufficient weight-bearing exercises to stress the bones. Osteoporosis


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