The General Description Owing to the erect standing of human being,the upper limb has been freed and more movable from weight bearing and become a laboring organ.The joints of the upper limb are chiefly for the mobility in action,whereas the joints of the lower limb are for the stability.
Ⅰ. Joints of upper limb Ⅰ ) Joints of the girdle of the upper limb 1.Sternoclavicular joint 胸锁关节 Joint formed by the sternal end of clavicle and clavicular notch of sternum and the first costal cartilage. Its capsule is strengthed by several ligaments.
Ⅱ )Joints of free upper limb Incluing the shoulder joint, the elbow joint, the joints of the ulna and radius, the wrist joint and the joints of the hand.
◆ Composition: Joint formed by the head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula. ◆ Type of should joint Synovial joint, ball-and-socket type. 1.Shoulder joint 肩关节 ◆ Feature: Its capsule is thin and loose.
◆ Movements of shoulder joint It is the most movable joint of the body. flexion, extension, adduction, abduction medial rotation, lateral rotation and circumduction of the arm.
头大盂小囊松薄 最易发生前下脱 ◆ Clinical application Dislocation of the shoulder joint
2. Elbow joint 肘关节 Definition: Joint formed by the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlea notch of the ulna and the head of the radius. □ Humeroulnar joint 肱尺关节 □ Humeroradial joint 肱桡关节 □ Proximal radioulnar joint 桡尺近侧关节
◆ Feature: Compound joint Its capsule is thin and loose anteriorly and posteriorly.
Dislocation of the radial head ◆ Clinical application
medial epicondyle of the humerus lateral epicondyle of the humerus tip of the olecranon ◆ Elbow landmarks
3.Joints between radius and ulnar Proximal radioulnar joint 桡尺近侧关节 Distal radioulnar joint 桡尺远侧关节 Interosseous membrane of forearm 前臂骨间膜
◆ Movements:pronation and supination
◆ Definition: It is a typical ellipsoid joint. The articular fossa is formed by the distal end of radius and under surface of the articular disc beneath the head of ulna; and the articular head by the proximal surface of scaphoid, lunate, and triangular bones. 4.Joints of hand 1) Radiocarpal joint 桡腕关节
★ Carpometacarpal joint of thumb 拇指腕掌关节 ◆ Definition: Joint formed by trapezium and base of the first metacarpal. ◆ Feature:saddle joint ◆ Movement: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and opposition
Ⅱ.Joints of Lower limb Ⅰ ) Joints of pelvic girdle 1.Sacroiliac joint 骶髂关节 ◆ Definition: It is formed by the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and the ilium. ◆ Feature: Its capsule is very tight and strengthened by ligaments.
2.Vertebropelvic ligaments 1) Iliolumbal ligament 髂腰韧带 : 2) Sacrotuberous ligament 骶结节韧带 3) Sacrospinous ligament 骶棘韧带 These two ligaments convert the sciatic notches the greater and lesser sciatic foramen 坐骨大、小孔