Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVES At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Describe the main criteria of skeletal muscles. Describe the attachments of skeletal."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVES At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Describe the main criteria of skeletal muscles. Describe the attachments of skeletal muscles. Describe the different directions of skeletal muscle fibers. Describe the mode of action of skeletal muscles. Describe briefly the naming of skeletal muscles. Describe briefly the nerve supply of skeletal muscles.
Muscular System Composed of two main types : Involuntary Smooth: Found in the walls of viscera. Cardiac: Found only in the heart. Voluntary Skeletal
Main Criteria of Skeletal Muscles Voluntary Striated Attached to skeleton Produce movement of skeleton Supplied by somatic nerves
Attachments MOSTLY TWO: ORIGIN Least movable Mostly fleshy Proximal end INSERTION Most movable Mostly fibrous Distal end
Types of Attachments Tendons o Cords of fibrous tissue. Aponeurosis o A thin broad and strong sheet of fibrous tissue. Raphe o An interdigitation of the tendinous ends of the flat muscles. Muscles are attached to bones, cartilage or ligaments by:
Directions of Muscle Fibers Parallel to body midline More range of movement More range of movement, less powerful. Pennate ( Penniform muscle ) Pennate ( Penniform muscle ) oblique to body midline More powerful More powerful, less range of movement. 1.Unipennate (some muscles in hands). 2.Bipennate (quadriceps muscle). 3.Multipennate (Deltoid muscle). parallel
Mode of Actions Prime mover (Agonist): It is the chief muscle responsible for a particular movement Example: Example: Quadriceps Femoris is the prime mover for extension of the knee joint
Mode of Actions Antagonist : It opposes the action of the prime mover. Before contraction of prime mover, antagonist must be relaxed. Example: Example: Biceps Femoris (Flexor of knee) opposes the action of quadriceps when the knee joint is extended.
Mode of Actions Synergist : Assist or prevents unwanted movement in an intermediate joint crossed by the Prime Mover. (Sometimes it refers to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion) Example: Example: Biceps and brachioradialis. The bicep is the prime mover in elbow joint movement and the brachioradialis acts as a synergistic muscle to stabilize the joint, thus aiding in the motion.
Mode of Actions Fixator : Its contraction does not produce movement by itself but it stabilizes the origin of the prime mover so that it can act efficiently. Example: Example: Muscles attaching the shoulder girdle to the trunk contract to fix shoulder girdle, allowing deltoid muscle (taking origin from shoulder girdle) to move shoulder joint (humerus).
Naming of Muscles Size: 1.Major or Maximus 1.Major or Maximus (large) gluteus maximus 2. Minor or Minimus 2. Minor or Minimus (small). gluteus minimus 3.Latissimus 3.Latissimus (broad) (latissimus dorsi). Longus 4. Longus (long ) (Adductor longus). 5.Brevis 5.Brevis (short) (Adductor brevis). Position: 1.Pectoralis 1.Pectoralis (pectoral region) Depth: 1.Superficialis (superficial). 2.Profundus (deep). 3.Externus (external).
Naming of Muscles Shape: 1.Deltoid 1.Deltoid (triangular). 2.Teres 2.Teres (rounded) 3.Rectus 3.Rectus (straight). Number of Heads: 1.Biceps 1.Biceps (2 heads). 2.Triceps 2.Triceps (3 heads). 3.Quadriceps 3.Quadriceps (4 heads). Attachments: 1.Coracobrachialis 1.Coracobrachialis (from coracoid process to arm). Action: 1.Flexor digitorum: 1.Flexor digitorum: flexion of digits.
Nerve Supply The nerves supplying the skeletal muscles are Mixed. 60% are Motor. 40% are Sensory. It contains some Autonomic fibers (Sympathetic). The nerve enters the muscle at about the middle point of its deep surface.
Summary striatedvoluntaryattached to move Skeletal muscles are striated, voluntary muscles attached to & move the skeleton. origininsertion They have 2 attachments: origin & insertion. paralleloblique (pennate) Their fibers may be parallel or oblique (pennate) to the line. According to mode of action, they are classified as: prime mover, antagonist, synergist or fixator prime mover, antagonist, synergist or fixator. They may be named according to: size, shape, number of heads, position, attachments, depth or action. mixed They are supplied by a mixed nerve.
Sample Questions Question # 1 Which statement is NOT true? A.Origin muscles are least movable, mostly fleshy, distal end. B.Parallel muscles are more range of movement, more powerful. C.Insertion muscles are most movable, mostly fibrous, proximal end. D.Pennate muscles are less powerful, less range of movement.
Sample Questions Question # 2 Which statement is true? A. Agonist is the chief muscle responsible for a particular movement B. Antagonist support the action of the prime mover. C.Synergist assist or prevents unwanted movement in an intermediate joint crossed by the Antagonist. D.Fixator contraction does not produce movement by itself but it stabilizes the origin of the Synergist mover so that it can act efficiently.