Presentation on theme: "1 The Story of Libraries: From Ancient Sumeria to America LS 501: Introduction to Library & Information Studies Revised Summer 2008, 2010, 2011 C. 2003,"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Story of Libraries: From Ancient Sumeria to America LS 501: Introduction to Library & Information Studies Revised Summer 2008, 2010, 2011 C. 2003, Deborah J. Grimes, Tuscaloosa, AL See YouTube for videos on libraries and history mentioned in this section.
2 Why Libraries? Reflections of society and culture Peace and tranquility “Golden Ages” Economic prosperity
3 Libraries in Antiquity: Sumeria First to move from oral to written communication Sumerian cuneiform “Houses of Tablets” found (over 600,000 tablets found at 250 sites) Floor Plan of royal Hittite library; thousands of clay tables found in 7 rooms
4 Ashurbanipal’s Library Assyria, 668-626 BC Royal Library at Ninevah Over 30,000 tablets Began as royal archive Expanded with goal to collect everything else known at the time -- sent agents all over the world to copy and collect Royal scribes copied and annotated ancient texts (librarians, authors, scholars)
5 Earliest Libraries Found in Ancient Sumeria Modern Day Iraq
6 Iraqi National Museum Deputy Director Mushin Hasan holds his head in his hands as he sits on destroyed artifacts on April 13, 2003. (MSNBC)
7 Mesopotamian Cuneiform Tablets, c. 3000-2000 BC, economic text, 4.75 in. high Photographs shown with permission of Allan Anawati of Medusa Ancient Art, Champlain, NY, http://www.pashamedia.com/medusa.html.http://www.pashamedia.com/medusa.html
8 Libraries in Antiquity: Egypt Hieroglyphics and papyrus Purpose of writing Temples, Khufu, Khafre, Edfu, Rameses II --libraries emerged about 2400 BC Rosetta Stone
10 Libraries in Antiquity: Greece Crete -- from pictograph to cursive script Adoption of Phoenician alphabet Pergamum and parchment Greek words biblos (book) + theke (container or repository) = origin of the word bibliotecha -- or library Papyrus fragments from Glasgow University Library
11 From “A Bequest Unearthed. Phoenicia …” c.2003 Salim George Khalaf, A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 2003 (2004, 5, 6...etc.), http://phoenicia.orghttp://phoenicia.org
12 Greek Alexandrian library in Egypt (aka Museion) --288 BC Planned by Ptolemy Soter (283 BC) but executed by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus Mission to collect the entirety of Greek literature (and more) through “aggressive collection development” -- 700,00 manuscripts Brucheum and Serapium Book arts standardized formats and forms of literature through copies Contributed to the book trade monopoly to the time of Caesar Restricted use gave way to more “public” and “university” use Biblioteca Alexandrina, c.2002 Alexandrian Library Trip to Biblioteca Alexandrina – 5 year anniversary Carl Sagan
13 Callimachus -- First Known Librarian Greek poet, scholar, literary critic Alexandrian Library -- bibliographer -- Pinakes (annotated subject catalog) “Father of Librarians” or “Father of Bibliography” or “Father of Catalogers” News of your death. Tears, and the memory of all the times we talked the sun down the sky. You, Herakleitos of Halikarnassos, once my friend, now vacant dust, whose poems are nightingales beyond the clutch of the unseen god. (Callimachus)
14 Libraries in Antiquity: Rome Greek influence Personal status, private libraries Roman generals brought home libraries as booty Golden Age -- spread of libraries (98-190 AD) Atrium Libertatis - first public library Libraries of antiquity set ideals for modern, Western libraries Cicero in his library, 18th. C. engraving
15 Libraries in Antiquity: Byzantine Libraries Constantine I u Valued education and writing u Founded the Imperial Library 353 AD, which contained Greek, Latin, and Christian works Imperial Library served both scholarly and religious mission 75% Greek classics today known from Byzantine copies
16 Libraries in Antiquity: Moslem Libraries Moslem Empire flourished 650-1000 AD u Respect for reading and learning -- homes, palaces, universities u Royal Library at Damascus u Baghdad --center for Greek medical, scientific, and philosophical works -- 36 libraries u Moslem universities held not only Arabic works but also Greek, Latin, Persian Particularly notable for preservation of the works of Aristotle for the Western world
17 From Manuscripts to Books Papyrus rolls/scrolls replaced with parchment (sheepskin) codex Christians adopted parchment format for the Scriptures Advantages: u Easier to handle than a scroll u More economical (both sides) u More compact Differentiated Christian texts from others Drawings from “Manuscript Books” by Richard W. Clement at http://www.ebooks2go.com
18 Libraries in the Middle Ages: Christian Monasticism, & Learning Christian monasticism as refuge from social, economic, political chaos at Fall of the Roman Empire Cassiodorus -- Vivarium (ca.540-553) library Every monastery had some provision for copying manuscripts Some “ordinary” scribes and some specially trained in calligraphy and art
19 Benedictines & Dominicans Benedictine orders viewed libraries as a place for spiritual reflection, archive religious texts, & reproduced religious and some secular texts Dominican orders established concern for location, shelving, organization (by subject), labeling on spines, acquisitions and weeding (Domini canis -- Dogs of God)
20 Libraries in the Middle Ages: Irish Scriptoria & Missionaries 6th. Century monasteries -- source of numerous manuscripts of the Bible, including pure Latin versions sent back to Europe Scriptoria established a national script and national art, characterized by superb calligraphy, illumination, and fine workmanship Irish missionaries spread the Gospel (and learning and books) to England, Scotland, northern Europe Chief transmitters and preservers of knowledge for more than 150 years in late Middle Ages
21 Libraries in the Middle Ages: The Carolingian Renaissance Charlemagne (768-814) -- revival of learning in the Frankish empire Scriptoria in monasteries and cathedrals “It was the universal multiplication of copies in the century 750-850 that enabled scholarship to survive the disasters of the following century and hand on a legacy to the future.” (Grierson) Charles the Bald -- first princely bibliophile -- finest codices of the age -- personal library
22 Illuminated manuscript page from the Books of Kells, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, ca.
23 Libraries in the Middle Ages: 850 to 1200 A.D. Charlemagne’s empire destroyed by war and invasion Meager collections -- all the more valuable Book-curses and ammarius / librarius Monastery writings u “Here, then, are the treasures of the monastery, here are riches feeding the soul with the sweetness of the heavenly life. u “An inexpressible number of books perished, leaving us deprived of our spiritual weapons. u “A monastery without a book-chest is like a castle without an armory.”
24 Libraries in the Middle Ages: Rise of Islam Late 5th. Century -- new religion and political power under Prophet Mohammed Moslems raided Byzantine Empire, conquered most of Middle East, and spread books and libraries to Spain and Africa Baghdad -- center of culture with “a house of wisdom” (830 AD) -- Library/academic/translation center Moslems controlled paper-making while Western world continued to use papyrus and parchment for 500 yrs. Book production, lavish mosque and educational libraries, catalogs, display cases, regular library staff
25 Libraries in the Middle Ages: The Crusades Fourth Crusade led to sack of Constantinople and both great loss and dispersion of literary works (1200s) Eventually stimulated trade, growth, prosperity, merchant (middle) class, individual freedom, advances in study of medicine Students and teachers congregated in certain locations, no longer “itinerate” Control over books and learning passed from monasteries to secular clergy and universities (University of Paris first) -- yet decline of monasticism led to drastic neglect of libraries Stationarii rented correct editions of books to students; books chained to desks
26 Chained Books "Handwritten books and the earlier printed books were rare and valuable objects that had to be protected from theft, and so in the libraries of medieval monasteries and cathedrals, the large folios (books made of paper folded once) and quartos (with sheets folded into fourths) were chained to cupboards and could be used only at the attached desks. The long rooms of benches and stalls gradually gave way to wall shelving when printed books began to be produced in smaller sizes and became less expensive." * "library" Britannica Online. [Accessed 30 September 1998].
27 Libraries in the Middle Ages: War, Black Death & Light at the End of the Tunnel 14th. Century rife with war and plague, reducing resources, craftsmen, and production of reading materials Charles V (1364-1380) built library which was basis of French Royal Library First large private library in England (1000 vols.) Aldermanic libraries in Germany Public demand for books and learning Sorbonne University library grew -- bequests, original manuscripts, locked to “strangers” who needed introduction, “pledge” required Lectern system of library organization, shelf-list
28 Libraries in the Renaissance: The Age of Humanism End of the Byzantine Empire and further dispersion of Greek culture Period of economic, social, and political ferment (centered in Italy) Petrarch -- “Father of Humanism” Increased sense of nationalism -- rise of national libraries with depository rights Decline in power of the church and increased interest in politics, literature, and ancient philosophy “Aristocratic enthusiasm” -- led to great private libraries (Boccaccio, Medici, Urbino) -- “acquisitions” -- Petrarch, 1304-1374 (Francesco Petrarca)
29 Libraries in the Renaissance: The Vatican Library Librarian - Tortelli Rome once again center of scholarly world Pope Sixtus IV continued to build Librarian, Platina (the Humanist) Rooms worthy of the collection Greek, Roman, reserves, tech. services Largest, most important of 15th. C. Pope Nicholas V “re-founded” Added volumes from personal collection Sent agents all over world to track down classics
30 Libraries in the Renaissance: The Vatican Library Hall of Sixtus V Research in the Vatican Library
31 Libraries in the Renaissance: Characteristics Unlike medieval libraries, open to the public Collections included varying points of view, schools of thought Shelving and classification same as Middle Ages Products of the printing press rigidly excluded by bibliophiles (not accepted until end of century) Beautiful rooms and facilities
32 Movable Type Origins of movable type Gutenberg’s press (1454) and early publications Results of movable type u Authoritative versions u Increase in supply of books and variety of topics u Greater diffusion of knowledge u Growth of vernacular works and increased literacy u Dissemination of classical literature u Flowering of national literature & literary criticism u Learning more available to all people
33 Libraries in the Reformation: Martin Luther in the 1500s Encouraged building good libraries, library buildings, and public libraries Henry VIII dissolved monasteries and appropriated their library collections but much was lost or dispersed Philip II -- Spain -- outstanding library of 2000 items
34 Founding of the great national libraries (1600s) u Bibliotheque Nationale -- established after French Revolution (formerly Bibliotheque Royale) -- formed from confiscated church libraries and private collections u British Museum Library inc. 1753 -- 1 million vols. by 1870 Libraries in 1600s -- 1900s The Reader, Fragonard Samuel Pepys -- most famous private library -- 3000 vols. Reading became fashionable for women (1700s) Industrial Revolution -- libraries to support education Globally -- expansion of public libraries
36 The British Museum Library Restored reading room inside British Museum, 2000 Treasures of the British Library
37 Libraries in The New World: Colonial Libraries Settlers’ private libraries u Captain John Smith -- 2 bks u Miles Standish -- 50 bks u William Bradford -- 80 bks u John Harvard -- 300+ bks u John Winthrop -- 1000+ bks First printing press -- 1639 Early colleges founded First “public” library -- Boston -- 1655 Parochial libraries established
38 Libraries in The New World: The American Revolution & Nationalism Before the Revolution u Ben Franklin, wealth, and social libraries After the Revolution u The Athenaeum -- reading rooms established u Mechanics’/apprentices’ libraries u Mill libraries u Circulating/lending libraries Nationalism u Historical societies u State and territorial libraries u The Library of Congress The Boston Athaenum
39 The Library of Congress Authorized 1800 Burned 1814 by British Army Jefferson restocked Jefferson restocked Continuous growth since Continuous growth since
40 Libraries in The New World: The Nineteenth Century Western expansion -- “Coonskin library” Educational influences u 1827 -- NY School district library formed u 1833 -- Tax-supported free public library -- Peterborough, NH u 1852 -- Boston Public Library u Public schools u Johns Hopkins University (German model) State library commissions Influence of philanthropy Andrew Carnegie
41 Libraries in The New World: The Birth of the American Library Profession 1853 -- 82 men attend librarians’ conference -- NY (over 10,000 attend ALA/CLA in Toronto 2003) Key events in 1876 u Public Libraries in the United States of America published by US Bureau of Education u American Library Association formed u Dewey’s classification system published u Cutter’s Rules for Making a Dictionary Catalogue published First library school established at Columbia College by Dewey in 1887
42 The Library’s Role in Preservation & Culture? Brittle books? Digital vs. paper preservation issues? Lloyd’s issue with history/culture/preservation? UNESCO “Memory of the World” project?
43 The Role of Libraries in the Information Society The story of libraries continues another day ……...
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