Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 10 Skeletal System Who is Ellen B. ? Has scoliosis? Side-ways curvature of the spine. Surgery!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Skeletal System Who is Ellen B. ? Has scoliosis? Side-ways curvature of the spine. Surgery!
2 Outline Tissues of the Skeletal System Bone Growth and Repair Bone Development Bone Repair Bones of the Skeleton – Bone Classification – Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Articulation Movements Permitted by Joints
3 Tissues of the Skeletal System Bones are living tissue. – Compact bone is highly organized and composed of tubular osteons. Osteocytes (bone cells) lie in lacunae, tiny chambers arranged in concentric circles (lamellas) around a central canal. Matrix is collagen fibers, Ca/P mineral salts. – Spongy bone contains numerous bars/plates (trabeculae) separated by unequal spaces. Spaces are often filled with red bone marrow, the source of all blood cells.
4 Tissues of the Skeletal System Cartilage – Cartilage is flexible because the gel-like matrix contains collagenous and elastic fibers. – Contains chondrocytes (cartilage cells) – Three types differ according to type and arrangement of fibers. Hyaline - Firm and flexible (most abundant).... Where? Fibrocartilage - Strong.... Where? Elastic - Flexible.... Where?
5 Tissues of the Skeletal System Fibrous Connective Tissue – Made of rows of fibroblasts (the cells) separated by bundles of collagenous fibers. Makes up ligaments (connect bone to bone) and tendons (connect muscles to bones at joints).
11 Bone Growth and Repair Several different types of cells are involved in bone growth and repair. – Osteoprogenitor cells. – Osteoblasts. – Osteocytes. – Osteoclasts. – Blasts – build. – Clasts – tear down.
12 Bone Development and Growth Ossification refers to bone formation. – Intramembranous ossification - Bones develop between sheets of fibrous tissue. – Endochondral ossification - Cartilage breaks down in the center of the diaphysis. After birth, the ends of developing bones continue to grow, but secondary ossification centers soon appear. – Growth plate remains between primary and secondary ossification centers.
13 Endochondral Ossification
14 Remodeling of Bones Osteoclasts derived from monocytes in red bone marrow break down bone, remove worn cells, and assist in depositing calcium in the blood. – Osteoblasts take calcium from blood and form new bone. Many older women, due to a lack of estrogen, suffer from osteoporosis.
16 HEALTH FOCUS You Can Avoid Osteoporosis. When and why are you at risk? What are some of the risk factors? What can be done?
17 Bone Repair Fracture repair takes place over a span of several months in a series of four steps. – Hematoma. – Fibrocartilaginous callus. – Bony callus. – Remodeling. Naming of a fracture indicates what kind of break occurred..... Simple, compound, greenstick, impacted.
18 Bone Fracture and Repair
19 Bones of the Skeleton Skeletal Functions. – Permit flexible body movement. – Long bones. – Support body. – Against gravity. – Protect soft body parts. – Brain, heart, lungs. – Produce blood cells. – Flat bones. – Store minerals and fat. – Calcium and phosphorus – Provide sites for muscle attachment.
20 Bone Classification Bones are classified according to their shape, and whether they occur in the axial skeleton or the appendicular skeleton. – Axial – at the midline. – 80 bones. – Appendicular – appendages (limbs) and their girdles. – 126 bones.
21 The Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton lies in the midline of the body and consists of: – Skull. – Hyoid bone. – Vertebral column. – Rib cage (sternum,or breastbone, and 12 pairs of ribs).
23 The Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton consists of bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdles and their attached limbs. – The pectoral girdle and upper limb (arm) are specialized for flexibility.
24 Bones of Pectoral Girdle and Arm
25 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle and Leg
26 Articulations (Joints) Where bones are joined together. Classified by degree of movement..... Immovable. Slightly movable. Freely movable. Fibrous joints. Sutures b/w cranial bones. Immovable. Cartilagenous joints. Are connected by hyaline cartilage, as in the intervertebral disks, innominate (coxal) bones. Slightly movable.
27 Articulations (Joints) Synovial joints. Separate the bones by a cavity. Lined with a synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. Freely movable. Examples include: Hinge? Knee, elbow. Ball-and-socket? Shoulder, hip. Freely movable also includes sliding joints? Hands.
28 Knee Joint
30 Movements Permitted by Synovial Joints Angular Movements. – Flexion - Decreases joint angle. – Extension - Increases joint angle. – Adduction - Movement towards midline. – Abduction - Movement away from midline.
33 Movements Permitted by Synovial Joints Circular Movements. – Rotation - Movement around axis. – Supination - Rotation with palm upward. – Circumduction - Movement in wide circle.
35 Movements Permitted by Synovial Joints Special Movements. – Inversion (sole inward) and eversion (sole outward). – Elevation (lifting up) and depression (moving down).
37 Arthritic Joints Joints are subject to arthritis. Arthro – joints, itis – inflammation. Two types: – Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). – Autoimmune disease. – Can be crippling. – Osteoarthritis (OA). – Begins in overworked joints. – Professional athletes, being overweight. Can treat with pain medication, use of cane or walker.
38 Arthritic Joints Replacement of damaged joint with a prosthesis (artificial substitute). Knee and hip replacements are common and successful.
40 Homeostasis SEE Human Systems Work Together. Rib cage enables oxygen to enter bloodstream (Respiratory System). Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells (Cardiovascular System). Jaw and teeth chew food, aiding digestion (Digestive System). Bones protect internal organs. Calcium storage. Efficient locomotion.
41 Review Tissues of the Skeletal System Bone Growth and Repair Bone Development Bone Repair Bones of the Skeleton – Bone Classification – Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Articulation Movements Permitted by Joints
42 Review Remember: Use the “Study Questions” in the Student Study Guide to guide your reading of the text material before coming to class. Use the “Powerpoint handouts” to review what you read before class and what we covered in class. After studying the material and when you believe you know and understand it – use the End-of-Chapter material to check your understanding. Also check your understanding by working in groups.
50 The Skull The skull is formed by the cranium and the facial bones. – The cranium contain eight bones. Frontal bone Two parietal bones. Occipital bone. Two temporal bones. Sphenoid bone. Ethmoid bone.
51 Bones of the Skull
52 The Facial Bones The most prominent facial bones are the mandible, maxillae, zygomatic bones, and nasal bones. – Mandible is the movable, lower jaw. – Maxillae form upper jaw. – Zygomatic bones form cheek prominence. – Nasal bones form the bridge of the nose.
53 Bones of the Face
54 Hyoid Bone The hyoid bone is not part of the skull, but is part of the axial skeleton. – Only bone that does not articulate with another bone.
55 The Vertebral Column Column made of thirty-three vertebrae. Spinal cord passes through the vertebral canal and gives off spinal nerves. Vertebrae named according to location. – Cervical. – Thoracic. – Lumbar. – Sacrum. – Coccyx.
56 The Vertebral Column Intervertebral disks composed of fibrocartilage are found between the vertebrae and provide padding to absorb shock caused by movements and also provide flexibility of the column.
58 The Rib Cage The rib cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae, ribs and associated cartilage, and the sternum. – Twelve pairs of ribs. All connect to thoracic vertebrae in back. Upper seven pairs (true ribs) connect to sternum by costal cartilage. Next three pairs (false ribs) attach to sternum by common cartilage. Last two pairs (floating ribs)do not attach to sternum.
59 Thoracic Vertebrae and Rib Cage
60 The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb. – The pelvis is a basin composed of the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx. Pelvis bears the weight of the body, protects organs within the pelvic cavity, and serves as attachment point for the legs. Femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body.