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Adaptation Process of Early Nineteenth Century American Music Education: An Anlalysis and Comparison of Selected Music Textbooks Published in Japan and.

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Presentation on theme: "Adaptation Process of Early Nineteenth Century American Music Education: An Anlalysis and Comparison of Selected Music Textbooks Published in Japan and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adaptation Process of Early Nineteenth Century American Music Education: An Anlalysis and Comparison of Selected Music Textbooks Published in Japan and the United States Masafumi Ogawa D.M.E. Joetsu University of Education

2 Outline of the Presentation _ Introduction _ Research Background _ Major Research Questions _ Methods and Delimitations _ Structure and Strategies _ Findings _ Conclusion _ Significance of the Study and Implications

3 Historical Background in the Beginning of Music Education in Japan _ 1868 Meiji Restoration (明治維新)  1872 The Fundamental Code of Education (学 制) _ 1879 The Music Study Committee (音楽取調 掛) _ 1879 The Code of Education (教育令) _ 1880 Luther Whiting Mason’s Arrival  1882 The First Music Textbook-- Shôgaku shôkasû shohen ( 小学唱歌集初編) _ 1882 Mason’s Leave and Dismissal  1883 Translated Teacher’s Manual-- Ongaku shinan (音楽指南) _ 1887 Tokyo Institute of Music (東京音楽学校)  1887 Yôchien shôkashû (幼稚園唱歌集) _ 1891 Isawa Shuji’s Dismissal _ 1911 End of the Meiji Period

4 Major Research Questions _ To what extent are early nineteenth century American influences on the beginning of Japanese public music education observed? _ To what extent is early nineteenth century American music education related to the music education of Luther Whiting Mason?  To what extent was the beginning of Japanese music education influenced by broader American school music education before Luther Mason?

5 Methods _ Analyze music textbooks of major 19th Century American music educators, Luther Whiting Mason, and official and private Japanese music textbooks _ Find characteristics of philosophy, methods, and song materials for these three groups of music education _ Examine official documents related to the topic _ Compare obtained data _ Clarify the adaptation process in music education and assess the influences

6 Delimitations _ Between 1880 (when the Music Study Committee was established) and 1911 (the end of the Meiji period) in the Japanese music textbooks. _ Between 1831(the emergence of the American school music education) and 1864 (when Luther Mason became a superintendent). _ The National Music Course and Charts (before Luther Mason went to Japan)

7 Analyzed American Textbooks Before L.W.Mason _ Lowell Mason ( ) The Manual of Boston Academy of Music (1834) The Juvenile Lyre (1831) Little Songs for Little Singers (1840) Juvenile Singing School (1840) The Boston School Song Book (1840) The Primary School Song Book (1846) The Song Book of the School Room (1849) _ Thomas Hastings ( ) The Juvenile Songs (1842) _ Elam Ives Jr.( ) The American Elementary Singing Book (1832) _ William Bradbury ( ) The Young Melodist (1845) _ Asa Fitz (1819-?) The American School Song Book (1843)

8 Analyzed Textbooks of L.W.Mason _ The National Music Teacher (1872) _ The First Music Reader (1872) _ The Second Music Reader (1872) _ The Third Music Reader (1872) _ Teacher’s Manual (1872)

9 Analyzed Japanese Textbooks (Official Publication)  Ongaku shôkei ( 音楽捷径) (1884)  Ongaku shinan (音楽指南) (1882)  Shôgaku shôkashû I,II, III ( 小学唱 歌集) ( )  Yôchien shôkashû (幼稚園唱歌 集) (1888)  Chûtô shôkashû (中等唱歌集) (1889)  Chûgaku shôka (中学唱歌) (1901)  Chûtô shôka (中等唱歌) (1909)

10 Analyzed Japanese Textbooks (Private Publication)  Shinpen chûtô shôka (新編中等 唱歌)( 1892 )  Shôgaku shôka I-VI (小学唱 歌) (1893)  Meiji shôka bassui (明治唱歌抜 粋) (1895)  Jogaku shôka I-III (女学唱歌) (1900)  Shipen chûgaku shôkashû I-III (新編中学唱歌集) (1902)  Yônen shôka I-IV (幼年唱歌) (1900)

11 American Music Textbooks The Nature of Music _ Music as gift from God _ Everyone has potential for music (mother tongue theory) _ Music as expression of feeling (arousal theory) _ Rhythm, Melody, Dynamics _ Music as a source of joyfulness for life

12 American Music Textbooks Purposes of Music Education _ Lowell Mason (1) improves the voice, (2) conduces health, (3) improves the heart, (4) produces social order and happiness, (5) produces habits of order both in mentally and physically, (6) cultivates the feelings. _ Elam Ives Jr. Training of mental power and mechanical power _ Asa Fitz (1) Devotion, (2) Relaxation, (3) Scientific Instruction

13 American Music Textbooks Teaching Methods and Materials _ Pestalozzianism predominance (as means and propaganda) _ Movable-Do, Fixed-Do combined _ Goals of achievement --to sight-read and sight-sing _ German and Italian centered repertoire (folk songs, opera songs) _ Nature, Religious, Persoanl _ Major keys (G, F, C, D) _ Meters (2/4, 4/4, 3/4, and 6/8) _ Homophonic style

14 The Textbooks of L.W.Mason The Nature of Music and Purposes of Music Education _ Singing as an extension of speaking (mother tongue theory) _ Music education cultivates the musical sense. _ Music education in schools could enrich the musical life in society. _ Music education is for the students' sake and it is its own reward.

15 The Textbooks of L.W.Mason Teaching Methods and Sequences _ Pestalozzian principles _ Movable-Do, Fixed-Do combined _ Eclectic approach--English (John Curwen, Joseph Mainzer, John Hullah), French (Galin-Paris-Chévé), German (J.C. Hohmann) _ Rote-singing-Sight-singing _ Experience-Theory-Experience _ Instruction-Example-Practice

16 The Textbooks of L.W.Mason Music Materials _ Mostly taken from Hohmann _ German art and folk songs _ Nature, Religious, Personal _ Major keys (G, F, C, D) _ Meters (4/4, 3/4, 2/4, and 6/8) _ Homophonic style

17 Japanese Music Textbooks The Nature of Music and Purposes of Music Education _ Music as promoting health and moral sense _ Public schools: promoting health and moral sense _ The Music Study Committee: (1) compilation and composition of pieces, (2)training special students the improvement of our national music in the future (3) introduction of the music into schools.

18 Japanese Music Textbooks Teaching Methods and Sequences _ Modified Pestalozzianism _ Modified Mason’s Methods _ Movable-Do, Fixed-Do combined _ Isawa’s idea of sequence: (1) Rote-singing (2) Cipher notation (3) Scale exercises (4)Staff notation exercises (5) Single melody singing (6) Rounds (7) Two-part singing (8)Piano (9) Orchestra

19 Japanese Music Textbooks Music Materials _ Four types-- (1) Western melodies with Japanese original texts, (2) Newly composed songs in Western style with original Japanese texts, (3) Newly composed songs in Japanese modes, (4) Arranged and transliterated songs from the Japanese traditional songs _ Many songs identified in American music textbooks _ German art and folk songs _ Nature, Patriotic, Personal, Moral _ Major keys (G, F, C, D) _ Meters (4/4, 3/4, 2/4, and 6/8) _ Homophonic style

20 Comparison I Philosophy

21 Comparison II Methods

22 Comparison III Music Materials

23 Similarities in Implementation of School Music Instruction between Japan and the United States

24 Message from Ogawa _ Music education is a form of cultural transmission and transformation.  We are not only teaching a piece or elements of music, rather we are constantly evolving educational policies, social conditions, and contextualizing in cultural transformations with our students.


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