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Pathology of the breast

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Presentation on theme: "Pathology of the breast"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pathology of the breast
normal anatomy physiologic changes developmental abnormalities inflammations fibrocystic changes tumors benign malignant pathology of the male breast

2 Normal anatomy before puberty – breasts in both sexes – ducts
variable degrees of branching, lack lobules 15 to 25 lactiferous ducts start in the nipple – branch terminal ductal lobular unit (intralobular duct, multiple lobular ducts, ductules or acini + intralobular connective tissue) hormonally responsive

3 Physiologic changes at birth male and female breasts
active secretion (transplacental passage of maternal hormones) bilateral breast enlargement colostrum-like secretion ("witch's milk") recedes several months postpartum after menopause – gradual and progressive involution (lobular atrophy, increased fat, cystic dilatation of ducts)

4 Physiologic changes Macromastia diffuse enlargement of both breasts
adolescence or pregnancy exaggerated response to hormonal stimulation Pubertal (Virginal) Macromastia year-old woman - breasts enlarged "overnight" to a combined weight of 104 pounds Pregnancy 1 in 100,000 pregnancies - erythematous, edematous, painful

5 Developmental abnormalities
Aplasia and hypoplasia uncommon – associated with overdevelopment of the contralateral breast acquired (irradiation – chest wall tumors) unilateral or bilateral amastia (absence of a nipple, breast ducts, pectoralis major muscle) – sex-linked recessive inheritance

6 Developmental abnormalities
Ectopic breast supernumerary breast (from ectopic breast tissue – along the milk lines (midaxillae – normal breasts – medial groin and vulva) 1 – 6 % of adult women, much less often in men unilateral axillary breast tissue Polythelia areola and underlying mammary ducts Aberrant Breast beyond the usual anatomic extent (no nipple or areola)

7 Inflammatory and reactive conditions
Fat necrosis can simulate carcinoma clinically and mammographically history of antecedent trauma, prior surgical intervention) histiocytes with foamy cytoplasm lipid–filled cysts fibrosis, calcifications, egg shell on mammography

8 Inflammatory and reactive conditions
Hemorrhagic necrosis with coagulopathy Warfarin treatment – shortly after initiation edema, hemorrhage, necrosis (thrombi in small blood vessels ) protein C deficiency Breast augmentation foreign materials (shellac, glazier's putty, spun glass, epoxy resin, beeswax, and shredded silk, silicone) thin–walled silicone bag – capsule – disfiguration

9 Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Mammary duct ectasia
Puerperal mastitis early stages (2nd and 3rd W) of lactation – 5% stasis of milk in distended ducts + staphylococci abscess formation (ATB, incision and drainage) Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis etiology unknown, suggests carcinoma Mammary duct ectasia periductal inflammation, duct sclerosis intermittent nipple discharge Tuberculosis less developed regions - serious condition lactating breast, innoculation via the lactiferous ducts slowly growing, solitary, painless mass

10 Benign proliferative lesions
pathologic spectrum of seemingly related clinically benign breast abnormalities palpably irregular and painful breasts discrete lumps, multiple nodules, cystically dilated ducts, apocrine metaplasia, interlobular and intralobular fibrosis intraductal epithelial proliferation fibrocystic disease, fibrocystic changes extremely common (58% F)

11 Benign proliferative lesions
Adenosis elongation of the terminal ductules caricature of the lobule sclerosing adenosis apocrine adenosis tubular adenosis nonpalpable lesion, recognized in mammograms microcalcifications!

12 Benign tumors Fibroadenoma
proliferation of epithelial and stromal elements most common breast tumor in adolescent and young adult women (peak age = third decade) higher incidence in black patients well-circumscribed, freely movable, nonpainful mass regress with age if left untreated ducts distorted elongated slit-like structures - intracanalicular pattern, ducts not compressed pericanalicular growth pattern (little practical value)

13 Intraductal papilloma
Tubular adenoma far less common than fibroadenomas young women, discrete, freely movable masses uniform sized ducts Lactating Adenoma enlarging masses during lactation or pregnancy prominent secretory change Intraductal papilloma in the mammary ducts, subareolar lactiferous ducts periductal inflammation, duct sclerosis serous or bloody nipple discharge fibrosis, infarction, squamous metaplasia

14 Cystosarcoma phyllodes (phyllodes tumor)
initial description - over 150 years ago - fleshy tumor, leaf-like pattern and cysts on cut surface circumscribed, connective tissue and epithelial elements (× fibroadenomas = greater connective tissue cellularity), 1-15 cm less than 1 % of breast tumors benign, malignant metastases are hematogenous low grade high grade

15 Proliferative changes
ductal and lobular hyperplasia atypical ductal and lobular hyperplasia higher risk for the cancer than "normal" population associated w. microcalcifications (!mammography!) incidental histological finding atypical hyperplasia = precancerous lesion

16 Breast carcinoma most frequent malignant tumor in females (followed by cervix and colon) highest incidence – developed countries (USA 84,8/ F/Y, Western Europe 64,7/ F/Y) 2nd killer among cancers (1st = lung ca) risk factors: genetic predisposition (breast ca in close (1st degree) relatives), proliferative changes, early menarche, late menopause, history of ca (breast, ovary, endometrium) importance of preventive controls! – early diagnosis better prognosis

17 Breast carcinoma - classification
IN SITU INVASIVE DUCTAL LOBULAR Ductal in situ (intraductal) Lobular in situ Ductal invasive + other types (12) Lobular invasive

18 Carcinoma in situ preinvasive - does not form a palpable tumor
not detected clinically (only X-ray – screening !!!) multicentricity and bilaterality (namely LCIS) continuum: bland hyperplasia - increasing atypism - carcinoma in situ no metastatic spread (basement membrane) risk of invasion depending on grade

19 Invasive carcinoma Invasive ductal carcinoma
largest group (65 to 80 % of mammary carcinomas) mid to late fifties stellate, white, firm (desmoplasia) less often circumscribed, soft (medullary ca) hormonally dependent (estrogen, progesterone) Invasive lobular carcinoma uniform cells, infiltrative growth (linear arrangement - indian file pattern)

20 Invasive carcinoma other types: tubular, mucinous, medullary, inflammatory – together about 10 % of breast ca metastases: regional lymph nodes (axillary, parasternal), lungs, liver, bone marrow, brain treatment: surgery (radical – mastectomy, breast conserving surgery – lumpectomy), radiotherapy antihormonal therapy (Tamoxifen) chemotherapy

21 Paget‘s disease of the nipple
result of intraepithelial spread of intraductal carcinoma large pale-staining cells within the epidermis of the nipple limited to the nipple or extend to the areola pain or itching, scaling and redness, mistaken for eczema ulceration, crusting, and serous or bloody discharge

22 Pathology of the male breast
Gynecomastia most common clinical and pathologic abnormality of the male breast increase in subareolar tissue in 30 to 40 percent of adult males, both breasts are affected in many cases associated with hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic renal failure, chronic pulmonary disease, and hypogonadism, use of hormones - estrogens, androgens, and other drugs (digitalis, cimetidine, spironolactone, marihuana, and tricyclic antidepressants) Carcinoma of the male breast uncommon < 1 % of all breast cancers

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