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Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: (immovable) amphiarthroses: (slightly moveable)

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Presentation on theme: "Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: (immovable) amphiarthroses: (slightly moveable)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: (immovable) amphiarthroses: (slightly moveable)

2 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: diarthroses or synovial: (freely movable)

3 Gliding and Condyloid

4 Hinge and Saddle

5 Pivot and Ball&Socket

6 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: amphiarthroses: diarthroses: FlexibilityStability

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9 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: diarthroses or synovial: (freely movable) characterized by: articular cartilage – articular capsule – Synovial fluid bursae

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11 Articular fibrocartilage: soft-tissue discs or menisci that intervene between articulating bones Functions of articular fibrocartilage? distributing loads over joint surfaces improving the limiting protecting the joint periphery lubricating the joint absorbing shock at the joint

12 Joint Architecture Articular connective tissues tendons - connect ligaments -connect

13 Ligaments and Tendons primarily what fiber type?

14 Arrangement dictates type of load strength

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17 Stress/strain of bone vs ligament

18 Can ligaments and tendons be strengthened?

19 Joint Stability What is joint stability? ability of a joint to

20 Joint Stability What factors increase joint stability? a closely reciprocating match of the articulating bone surfaces (stability is maximal when joints are in the) a strong array of crossing the joint absence of muscle fatigue

21 Increased joint stability

22 Joint Flexibility What is joint flexibility? ability of joints to go through full ROM in range of motion (ROM) - the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction

23 Joint Flexibility What factors influence joint flexibility?

24 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What sensory receptors influence the extensibility of the musculotendinous unit? Golgi tendon organs - inhibit tension in muscle & initiate tension development in antagonists

25 Golgi Tendon Organ

26 GTO

27 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What sensory receptors influence the extensibility of the musculotendinous unit? Golgi tendon organs - inhibit tension in muscle & initiate tension development in antagonists muscle spindles - provoke reflex contraction in stretched muscle & inhibit tension in antagonists

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29 Muscle spindle

30 Golgi Tendon Organs and Muscle Spindles: How do they Compare? Golgi Tendon Organs Muscle Spindles Location Within tendons near theInterspersed among muscle-tendon junction in series with muscle fibers Stimulus Increase in muscle tension Increase in muscle length Response 1) Inhibits tension develop- ment in stretched muscle, ion of stretched muscle 2) Initiates tension develop- ment in antagonist muscles Overall Effect Promotes stretch in muscle Inhibits stretch in muscle being stretched being stetched muscle fibers in parallel with the fibers 1) Initiates rapid contract- 2) Inhibits tension develop-

31 Golgi Tendon Organs and Muscle Spindles: How do they Compare? Golgi Tendon Organs Muscle Spindles Location Within tendons near theInterspersed among muscle-tendon junction in series with muscle fibers Stimulus Increase in muscle tension Increase in muscle length Response 1) Inhibits tension develop- ment in stretched muscle, ion of stretched muscle 2) Initiates tension develop- ment in antagonist muscles Overall Effect Promotes stretch in muscle Inhibits stretch in muscle being stretched being stetched muscle fibers in parallel with the fibers 1) Initiates rapid contract- 2) Inhibits tension develop-

32 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility active stretching- produced by active development of tension in the passive stretching - produced by a force other than tension in the opposing muscles

33 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility ballistic stretching- a series of quick, bouncing-type stretches static stretching - maintaining a slow, controlled, sustained stretch over time-usually about 30 seconds

34 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What is PNF? Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is a group of stretching procedures involving alternating contraction and relaxation of the muscles being stretched

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