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14.4 Simple Machines The output of one device acts as the input of the next.

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Presentation on theme: "14.4 Simple Machines The output of one device acts as the input of the next."— Presentation transcript:

1 14.4 Simple Machines The output of one device acts as the input of the next.

2 14.4 Simple Machines What are the six types of simple machines? The six types of simple machines are the lever, the wheel and axle, the inclined plane, the wedge, the screw, and the pulley.

3 14.4 Simple Machines What determines the mechanical advantage of the six types of simple machines? Levers To calculate the ideal mechanical advantage of any lever, divide the input arm by the output arm.

4 14.4 Simple Machines A lever is a rigid bar that is free to move around a fixed point. The fixed point the bar rotates around is the fulcrum. Levers

5 14.4 Simple Machines The input arm of a lever is the distance between the input force and the fulcrum. The output arm is the distance between the output force and the fulcrum. Levers are classified into three categories based on the locations of the input force, the output force, and the fulcrum. Levers

6 14.4 Simple Machines First-Class Levers The fulcrum of a first-class lever is always located between the input force and the output force. Depending on the fulcrum position, the mechanical advantage can be greater than 1, equal to 1, or less than 1. Levers

7 14.4 Simple Machines The screwdriver is being used as a first-class lever with a mechanical advantage greater than 1. Levers (Diagram is not drawn to scale.)

8 14.4 Simple Machines Second-Class Levers In a second-class lever, the output force is located between the input force and the fulcrum. The input distance is larger than the output distance. The mechanical advantage of a second-class lever is always greater than 1. Levers

9 14.4 Simple Machines The wheelbarrow has its output force located between the input force and the fulcrum. Levers (Diagram is not drawn to scale.)

10 14.4 Simple Machines Third-Class Levers The input force of a third-class lever is located between the fulcrum and the output force. The output distance over which the third-class lever exerts its force is larger than the input distance. The mechanical advantage of a third-class lever is always less than 1. Levers

11 14.4 Simple Machines The output distance of the broom is greater than the input distance the hands move through. Levers (Diagram is not drawn to scale.)

12 14.4 Simple Machines To calculate the ideal mechanical advantage of the wheel and axle, divide the radius (or diameter) where the input force is exerted by the radius (or diameter) where the output force is exerted. Wheel and Axle

13 14.4 Simple Machines A wheel and axle is a simple machine that consists of two disks or cylinders, each one with a different radius. The outer disk is the wheel and the inner cylinder is the axle. The wheel and the axle rotate together as a unit. Wheel and Axle

14 14.4 Simple Machines The input force can be exerted on the wheel or the axle. If the force is applied to the wheel, the input distance is larger than the output distance. The mechanical advantage is greater than 1. If the force is applied to the axle, the output distance is larger than the input distance. The mechanical advantage is less than 1. Wheel and Axle

15 14.4 Simple Machines A wheel and axle is a type of simple machine consisting of two disks or cylinders with different radii. Wheel and Axle Input Output Steering shaft Steering wheel Screwdriver handle Input Output Screwdriver shaft

16 14.4 Simple Machines The ideal mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the distance along the inclined plane divided by its change in height. Inclined Planes

17 14.4 Simple Machines An inclined plane is a slanted surface along which a force moves an object to a different elevation. The distance traveled is the input distance. The change in height of the ramp is its output distance. The mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is greater than 1. Inclined Planes

18 14.4 Simple Machines This long and winding road acts like an inclined plane. Inclined Planes

19 14.4 Simple Machines A thin wedge of a given length has a greater ideal mechanical advantage than a thick wedge of the same length. Wedges and Screws Screws with threads that are closer together have a greater ideal mechanical advantage.

20 14.4 Simple Machines Wedges A wedge is a V-shaped object whose sides are two inclined planes sloped toward each other. A wedge has a mechanical advantage greater than 1. Wedges and Screws

21 14.4 Simple Machines The wedge consists of two inclined planes that slope toward each other. The inclined planes force the wood fibers apart as the wedge is driven into the log. Wedges and Screws Input force

22 14.4 Simple Machines Screws A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. For two screws of the same length, the one whose threads are closer together moves forward less for each turn of the screw. A screw has a mechanical advantage greater than 1. Wedges and Screws

23 14.4 Simple Machines A screw is a simple machine made up of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. Wedges and Screws

24 14.4 Simple Machines The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley or pulley system is equal to the number of rope sections supporting the load being lifted. Pulleys

25 14.4 Simple Machines A pulley is a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel. Pulleys produce an output force that is different in size, direction, or both, from that of the input force. The mechanical advantage of a pulley can be equal to or greater than 1. Pulleys

26 14.4 Simple Machines A pulley moves a large fabricated part through a factory. Pulleys

27 14.4 Simple Machines Fixed Pulleys A fixed pulley is a wheel attached in a fixed location. The direction of the exerted force is changed by a fixed pulley, but the size of the force is not. The ideal mechanical advantage of a fixed pulley is always 1. Pulleys

28 14.4 Simple Machines A fixed pulley changes only the direction of the input force. Pulleys 4 N Fixed Pulley

29 14.4 Simple Machines Movable Pulley A movable pulley is attached to the object being moved rather than to a fixed location. Both sections of the rope pull up with the same force. The movable pulley has a mechanical advantage of 2. Pulleys

30 14.4 Simple Machines Movable pulleys change both the direction and the size of the input force. Pulleys 2 N 4 N Movable Pulley 2 N

31 14.4 Simple Machines Pulley System A large mechanical advantage can be achieved by combining fixed and movable pulleys into a pulley system. The mechanical advantage depends on how the pulleys are arranged. The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley system is equal to the number of rope sections supporting the load being lifted. Pulleys

32 14.4 Simple Machines Pulley systems are made up of both fixed and movable pulleys. Pulleys 1 N 4 N Pulley System 1 N

33 14.4 Simple Machines A shipyard has many different pulleys and pulley systems in use. The pulleys are used to move large, heavy, fabricated ship sections through the manufacturing process. During an annual safety and performance inspection of three of the company’s systems, a facility engineer collected the data shown in the graph. The data give the measured output forces for a range of given input forces. Pulley System Performance

34 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 1. Using Graphs What system requires the smallest input force to lift a 2500-N load? Answer:

35 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 1. Using Graphs What system requires the smallest input force to lift a 2500-N load? Answer: System C

36 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 2. Calculating Determine the actual mechanical advantage for each of the systems for a 2000-N input force. Answer:

37 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 2. Calculating Determine the actual mechanical advantage for each of the systems for a 2000-N input force. Answer: AMA = Output force/Input force A: AMA = 1; B: AMA = 2; C: AMA = 8

38 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 3. Applying Concepts Which of the three systems shown in the graph consists of a single fixed pulley? Explain how you know. Answer:

39 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 3. Applying Concepts Which of the three systems shown in the graph consists of a single fixed pulley? Explain how you know. Answer: System A could be a fixed pulley because it has a mechanical advantage of 1.

40 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 4. Inferring Describe what happens to system B’s output force as the input force increases above 4000 N. How does this affect the mechanical advantage of the system at higher loads? Offer a possible cause for the performance shown in the graph.

41 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 4. Inferring Describe what happens to system B’s output force as the input force increases above 4000 N. How does this affect the mechanical advantage of the system at higher loads? Offer a possible cause for the performance shown in the graph. Answer: The output force begins to decrease relative to the required input force. At higher loads the mechanical advantage is decreased. Increased friction at higher loads could be a cause.

42 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 5. Applying Concepts Using the mechanical advantage value from Question 2, determine the output force of system A for an input force of 8000 N. Answer:

43 14.4 Simple Machines Exploring Boiling Points of Chlorocarbons 5. Applying Concepts Using the mechanical advantage value from Question 2, determine the output force of system A for an input force of 8000 N. Answer: 8000 N

44 14.4 Simple Machines A compound machine is a combination of two or more simple machines that operate together. Most of the machines you use are compound machines. The edges of a pair of scissors are sharpened like wedges. The blades and the handles together function as levers. Cars, washing machines, and clocks are combinations of hundreds or thousands of simple machines. Compound Machines

45 14.4 Simple Machines This watch consists of a series of machines. The output of one machine acts as the driving input for the next machine in the series. Compound Machines

46 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 1.A bar that is rotating about a fixed point is called a a.fulcrum. b.lever. c.wedge. d.compound machine.

47 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 1.A bar that is rotating about a fixed point is called a a.fulcrum. b.lever. c.wedge. d.compound machine. ANS:B

48 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 2.A 3-meter-long ramp is used to lift a piano to a moving truck, which is 1 meter off the ground. What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the ramp? a.1 b.2 c.3 d.33

49 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 2.A 3-meter-long ramp is used to lift a piano to a moving truck, which is 1 meter off the ground. What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the ramp? a.1 b.2 c.3 d.33 ANS:C

50 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 1.A machine, such as a bicycle, that combines many simple machines is known as a complex machine. True False

51 14.4 Simple Machines Assessment Questions 1.A machine, such as a bicycle, that combines many simple machines is known as a complex machine. True False ANS:F, compound machine


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