Presentation on theme: "Etapa 2 Adjectives: Part I pp. 77-80 Demonstrative Adjectives p. 84 Demonstrative pronouns p. 86."— Presentation transcript:
Etapa 2 Adjectives: Part I pp. 77-80 Demonstrative Adjectives p. 84 Demonstrative pronouns p. 86
Adjectives are frequently descriptive. That is, most often adjectives are used to describe a noun, or distinguish the noun from a group of similar objects. For example, an adjective might describe the color of an object. the red pen the blue pen
In Spanish, most adjectives change form, depending upon whether the word they modify is masculine or feminine. Notice the difference between “the tall boy” and “the tall girl.” el chico alto la chica alta
Adjectives also change form depending upon whether the word they modify is singular or plural. Notice the difference between “the tall boy” and “the tall boys” ; “the tall girl” and “the tall girls.” el chico alto los chicos altos la chica alta las chicas altas
Many common adjectives end in -o. These adjectives have four forms. The following words all mean “tall”: alto alta altos altas
The correct form of the adjective depends upon the noun it modifies. Is the noun masculine or feminine? Singular or plural? libro rojo.................. red book pluma roja............... red pen libros rojos............... red books plumas rojas............. red pens
Notice how the endings of these nouns and adjectives are similar. libro rojo pluma roja libros rojos plumas rojas
Adjectives that end in -e also change form for singular or plural. To form the plural, simply add -s. la chica inteligente las chicas inteligentes
Adjectives that end in -e do not, however, change form for masculine or feminine. la chica inteligente el chico inteligente las chicas inteligentes los chicos inteligentes
Similarly, most adjectives that end in a consonant do change form for singular or plural, but do not change for masculine or feminine. To form the plural, add -es. la chica popular el chico popular las chicas populares los chicos populares
Let’s review: Adjectives that end in -o have four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas Adjectives that end in -e have two forms: inteligente, inteligentes Most adjectives that end in a consonant have two forms: popular, populares (form plural by adding -es)
Many adjectives of nationality end in -o. These adjectives follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in -o. That is, they have four forms. el muchacho mexicano la muchacha mexicana los muchachos mexicanos las muchachas mexicanas
Many other adjectives of nationality end in a consonant. These adjectives do not follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in a consonant, rather, they have a distinct feminine form ending in -a. el muchacho español la muchacha española los muchachos españoles las muchachas españolas
There is another group of adjectives that does not follow the normal rules. Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín also have a feminine form. el chico hablador la chica habladora los chicos habladores las chicas habladoras el hombre trabajador la mujer trabajadora los hombres trabajadores las mujeres trabajadoras NOTE: Adjectives ending in “-erior” do not have a feminine form.
Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe. el chico alto la chica alta los libros pequeños las plumas rojas
Adjectives of quantity almost always come before the noun. Such adjectives tell how much or how many. pocos libros mucha energía mucho trabajo pocas casas
Sometimes, a descriptive adjective can precede the noun. If the adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first. la blanca nieve......... the white snow (snow is inherently white) los altos picos........... the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)
Ejercicios A,B,C,D pp. 80-82 Ejercicios A,B,C pp. 82-83
In the following sentences, the words in bold all function as adjectives, since they all describe the noun “book.” Give me the red book. Give me the big book. Give me that book. Give me this book. Notice that adjectives answer the question “Which?” in relation to the nouns that they modify. (Which book? The red book. The big book. That book. This book.)
As you have just seen, the words “this” and “that” can function as both adjectives Juan reads this book. (adjective) Juan lee este libro. That statue is Greek Esa estatua es griega.
Spanish has three words where English only has two. In English, we say “this” or “that” depending upon whether the object is close to us or not. In Spanish, we also say “this” and “that,” but there is another, separate word used to mean “that one over there.” This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room. Here are the three forms for “this” “that” and “that one over there.” ◦ este......................... this ◦ ese.......................... that ◦ aquel...................... that one over there
este libro (this book masc. sing.) estos libros (these books masc. pl.) esta pluma (this pen fem. sing.) estas plumas (these pens fem. pl.) ese libro (that book masc. sing.) esos libros ( those books masc. pl.) esa pluma ( that pen fem. sing.) esas plumas (those pens fem. pl.) aquel libro (that book over there masc. sing.) aquellos libros (those books over there masc. pl.) aquella pluma (that pen over there fem. sing.) aquellas plumas (those pens over there fem. pl.)
In the following sentences, the words in bold all function as pronouns, since they all take the place of a noun. Maria is next; give her the ball. Juan is here; say hello to him. That pencil is yours; this is mine. This book is mine; that is yours. Notice that pronouns replace a noun. (“her” replaces “Maria” - “him” replaces “Juan” - “this” replaces “pencil” - “that” replaces “book”)
éste (this one - masculine) éstos (these ones - masculine) ésta (this one - feminine) éstas (these ones - feminine) ése (that one - masculine) ésos (those ones - masculine) ésa (that one - feminine) ésas (those ones - feminine) aquél (that one over there - masc.) aquéllos (those ones over there - masc.) aquélla (that one over there - fem.) aquéllas (those ones over there - fem.)
In Spanish, the only difference between demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectives is that demonstrative pronouns have a written accent. In general, demonstrative pronouns no longer are accentuated, but the accent will be included in your textbook exercises and assessment to help differentiate them from the demonstrative adjectives.
Juan reads this book. (adjective) Juan lee este libro. Juan reads this. (pronoun) Juan lee éste. That statue is Greek Esa estatua es griega. That is American Ésa es americana.
Remember, the demonstrative pronouns are the same as the demonstrative adjectives, except that the pronouns have a written accent. this este (adjective) éste (pronoun) that ese (adjective) ése (pronoun) that one over there aquel (adjective) aquél (pronoun)