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Course Content I.Introduction to the Course II.Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement III.Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement IV.Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "Course Content I.Introduction to the Course II.Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement III.Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement IV.Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Course Content I.Introduction to the Course II.Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement III.Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement IV.Applications in Human Movement

2 Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement A.The Skeletal System B.The Muscular System

3 The Skeletal System 1.General Structure & Function 2.Tissue Level Structure & Function 3.System Level Structure & Function 4.Injury to the Skeletal System

4 System Level Structure & Function Classification of Joints Accessory Structures System Level Function

5 System Level Structure & Function Classification of Joints Accessory Structures System Level Function

6 Classification of Joints Structure vs. Function 1.Synarthrosis 2.Amphiarthrosis 3.Diarthrosis

7 Classification of Joints 1.Synarthrosis (immovable) a.sutural syndesmosis (fibrous) b.synchondrosis (cartilaginous)

8 1-a. Sutural syndesmosis

9 1-b. Synchondrosis Temporary

10 1-b. Synchondrosis Permanent

11 Classification of Joints 2.Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable) a.membranous syndesmosis (fibrous) b.symphysis (cartilaginous)

12 2-a. Membranous Syndesmosis

13 2-b. Symphysis Joined by a fibrocartilage disc

14 2-b. Symphysis

15 Classification of Joints 3.Diarthrosis (freely movable, synovial) a.nonaxial b.uniaxial c.biaxial d.triaxial

16 Diarthrodal Joints 4 common charachteristics: 1) Enclosed by fibrous joint capsule 2) Capsule is lined by synovial membrane 3) Joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid 4) Ends of bones are lined with hyaline articular cartilage

17 Characteristics of Diarthrodial Joints

18 3-a. Nonaxial – Gliding, Plane IT IC

19 3-a. Nonaxial TMT, IM CMC, IM facet

20 3-a. Nonaxial AC SC

21 3-b. Uniaxial - Hinge talocrural IP humeroulnar

22 3-b. Uniaxial - Pivot RU atlantoaxial

23 3-c. Biaxial – Condyloid & Ellipsoid condyloid - MPellipsoid - radiocarpal

24 3-c. Biaxial - Saddle SC

25 3-c. Biaxial - Saddle calcaneocuboid 1 st CMC

26 3-c. Biaxial – Bicondyloid??

27 3-d. Triaxial glenohumeral coxal

28 System Level Structure & Function Classification of Joints Accessory Structures System Level Function

29 Accessory Joint Structures Tendons Synovial (Tendon) Sheaths Ligaments & Joint Capsules Retinacula Fasciae Articular Discs Bursae Labrums

30 Tendons Structure? Function? Active & passive 1 st line of defense

31 Synovial Sheaths Structure? Function? Biceps Tendon in Bicipital Groove

32 Synovial Sheaths

33 Joint Capsules Criss-crossed arrangement 2 or more layers Regular collagenous tissue

34 Ligaments Structure Function Passive 2 nd line of defense Aligned in direction of imposed stress

35 Ligaments Capsular vs. Noncapsular Capsular

36 Ligaments Capsular vs. Noncapsular

37 Ligaments Extracapsular Noncapsular: Intra vs. Extra

38 Ligaments IntracapsularCapsular

39 Ligaments Extracapsular

40 Ligaments – Passive Function Resists Adduction

41 Retinacula Structure? Function? – Guy Rope

42 Retinacula – Pulley

43 Fasciae Fascia – any type of ordinary CT in a sheet Superficial fascia Deep fascia

44 Articular Discs congruence: area over which JRF transmitted Fibrocartilage Function? AC jtSC jttibiofemoralradiocarpal

45 Bursae Structure? Function?

46 Bursae

47 Labrums

48 System Level Structure & Function Classification of Joints Accessory Structures System Level Function

49 Terminology stability - the ability of a joint to resist displacement or dislocation; the strength of the bonds between the bones in a joint mobility - the degree to which the bones are allowed to move before being restricted by surrounding tissues flexibility - another term for mobility

50 Measures of Mobility DOF - the angular directions of movement considered normal for a joint; general measure of mobility ROM - the angle through which a bone moves about a joint from anatomical position to the extreme limit of a segment motion in a particular direction; a specific measure of joint mobility joint, planar, and direction specific

51 General Terminology hypermobile - describes a joint where ROM exceeds normal limits hypomobile - describes a joint where ROM is less than what would normally be permitted laxity – the ROM in those directions considered abnormal for a joint; the degree of instability in a joint

52 General Terminology subluxation – a transient decrease in the normal area of contact (congruency) between the articular surfaces in a synovial joint luxation – a transient separation of the articular surfaces in a synovial joint dislocation – a permanent (in the absence of treatment) separation of the articular surfaces in a synovial joint

53 Factors Affecting Joint Stability/Mobility 1. Bony Structure 2. Ligament/Capsular restraint

54 Contact between surfaces creates torque on each bone from JRF of bone. 1. Role of Bony Structure 3 rd (& final) line of defense How does bony structure stop excessive motion?

55 Flexor torque Adductor torque Extensor torque

56 Bony Structure Shape of articular surfaces determines: when in the ROM the rxn torque is applied the direction of the rxn force (and thus, size of moment arm) the amount of the rxn torque

57 How would a deeper olecranon fossa change: where in the ROM T rxn occurred the direction of F rxn the magnitude of T rxn the max ROM

58 2. Role of Ligaments & Joint Capsules 2 nd line of defense Size of moment arm Angle of attachment Attachment sites Magnitude of Force Strength Number of ligaments (net torque)

59 Flexor torque Adductor torque

60 Size of moment arm (angle, attachment site) Magnitude of force Tautness Number of ligaments (net torque) How can the ligamentous/JC function be changed?

61 Summary Joints in the body are classified on the basis of structure and function. Joint structure dictates the function of a given joint, especially the bony and ligamentous/JC structure about the joint. Other accessory structures contribute to joint mobility, stability, and longevity as well.


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