Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

History of Plant Taxonomy zPreliterate People yarranged plants by usefulness xfood, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "History of Plant Taxonomy zPreliterate People yarranged plants by usefulness xfood, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Plant Taxonomy zPreliterate People yarranged plants by usefulness xfood, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)

2 History of Plant Taxonomy zPreliterate People yarranged plants by usefulness xfood, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)

3 History of Plant Taxonomy zBaked Clay -> Papyrus (Egyptians) -> Printing Press

4 History of Plant Taxonomy zTheophrastus - 4thC BC Greek yPlants: xWoody trees, shrubs, undershrubs xHerbaceous yDetailed descriptions of many plant features: ysepals, petals, stamen, pistils (superior, inferior) yAlexander The Great

5 History of Plant Taxonomy zDioscordes Roman 1stC AD yMateria Medica y(Not much in terms of major improvements in botany through Middle Ages - until 13thC.)

6 History of Plant Taxonomy zDioscordes Roman 1stC AD yMateria Medica y(Not much in terms of major improvements in botany through Middle Ages - until 13thC.) yAncient manuscripts copies in Monasteries during the Middle Ages. xErrors….no spirit of investigation

7 History of Plant Taxonomy zAlbert Magmus 13thC yUniversity of Paris yMany Topics including Botany yDe Vegetabilis 1256 AD xmodified Theophrasian system xgreater no. of plants xDicots vs. monocots xvascular vs. nonvascular plants

8 History of Plant Taxonimy zMovable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works.

9 History of Plant Taxonimy zMovable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works. z15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals yartifical systems “Doctrine of Signatures” ynatural systems evolved slowly

10 History of Plant Taxonimy zMovable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works. z15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals yartifical systems “Doctrine of Signatures” ynatural systems evolved slowly yTremendous increase in no. of plants discovered…. 15thC L. Ghini Herbarium

11 History of Plant Systematics zIndex Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981 y1700 of world’s Herbaria

12 History of Plant Systematics zIndex Herbarium Vol. 106, 1981 y1700 of world’s Herbaria zAndrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian yClassification system based on morphological similarities De Plantis Libri (artificial)

13 History of Plant Systematics yIndex Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981 y1700 of world’s Herbaria zAndrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian yClassification system based on morphological similarities De Plantis Libri (artificial) zCasper Baughin 17thC German ydescribed over 6000 plants y1st to use binomial nomenclature

14 History of Plant Systematics zJohn Ray 17thC English ySet out to describe all organisms. yHerbs, Arbores yMonocots, Dicots yUsed Polynomials y1800 species (500 new) y“Type Specimen” yImmutability of Species

15 History of Plant Taxonomy zCarolus Linneaus 18thC Swedish ybinomial nomenclature ySpecies Plantarum 1753 xArtificial (stamen no.) yDefined some natural groups in later works: xCompositae xGramineae xSolanaceae

16 History of Plant Taxonomy zG. Bentham 19thC Eng.z J.D. Hooker 19thC Eng.

17 History of Plant Taxonomy zBentham and Hooker yGenera Plantarum 1863 xMost complete pre-evolutionary work - xnatural classification.

18 History of Plant Taxonomy zBentham and Hooker yGenera Plantarum 1863 xMost complete pre-evolutionary work - xnatural classification.

19 History of Plant Taxonomy zCharles Darwin and Alfred Wallace z- Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858

20 History of Plant Taxonomy zCharles Darwin and Alfred Wallace z- Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858 zOrigin of Species 1859 C. Darwin

21 History of Plant Taxonomy zCharles Darwin and Alfred Wallace z- Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858 zOrigin of Species 1859 C. Darwin ySpecies are dynamic and variable population systems that change through time.

22 History of Plant Taxonomy yAdolf Engler and Karl Prantl late 19thC German yThe Natural Plant Families xmost modern plant families described xproposed unisexual flowers primitive xarranged plants primitive ---> advanced x(simple = primitive)

23 History of Plant Systematics zCharles Bessey 20thC American y natural phyletic system for flowering plants based on evolution. yAccepted Ranalian Line as most primitive (Ranucluaceae, magnoliaceae - Ranales). yBased on dicta used to separate primitive from advanced.

24 History of Plant Taxonomy zModified Bessian Classification Schemes: yAuther Cronquist 1968 NY Bot. Gardens yArmen Takhtajan 1969 Soviete Union yRobert Thorne 1976 Rancho Santa Anna Bot. Gardens, California

25 History of Plant Taxonomy zA. Takhtajan and Auther Cronquist

26 Kingdom: Plantae zDivision: Bryophyta zDivision: Sphenophyta z zDivision: Pterophyta zDivision: Coniferophyta zDivision: Anthophyta

27 Kingdom: Plantae zDivision: Bryophyta “mosses and liverworts” zDivision: Sphenophyta “horsetails” z zDivision: Pterophyta “ferns” zDivision: Coniferophyta “spruces, firs, pines” zDivision: Anthophyta “flowering plants”

28 Literature of Plant Taxonomy zRecords - Library and Herbarium zPublications: yMonograph -

29 Literature of Plant Taxonomy zRecords - Library and Herbarium zPublications: yMonograph - covers a specific group of plants: family, genera, etc. (Revisions, Synopses) yFlora -

30 Literature of Plant Taxonomy zRecords - Library and Herbarium zPublications: yMonograph - covers a specific group of plants: family, genera, etc. (Revisions, Synopses) yFlora - Treatment of plants in a defined geographical area. (Local Flora) yResearch Reports -decription of new species or reclassifications. Taxon xjournals, indices

31 Taxonomic “Types” zType Specimen - yone representative of the taxon zHolotype - yspecimen designated by the author in the original publication (nomenclatural type) zIsotype - ya duplicate specimen of the holotype collected at the same time and place (may be in other herbarium) zLectotype - ya specimen chosen from the author’s original material when no holotype has been designated.

32 Taxonomic “Types” yNeotype- xselected when all original specimens have been destroyed


Download ppt "History of Plant Taxonomy zPreliterate People yarranged plants by usefulness xfood, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google