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The Earth and Its Peoples 3 rd edition Chapter 11 Inner and East Asia, 400-1200 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"Going up the River" In Song times many cities in China grew to 50,000 or more people, and the capital, Kaifeng, reached over a million. The bustle of a commercial city is shown here in a detail from a late- eleventh- or early-twelfth-century cityscape scroll: Zhang Zeduan, Life Along the River on the Eve of the Qingming Festival. This scene shows draymen and porters, peddlers and shopkeepers, monks and scholars, a storyteller, a fortuneteller, a scribe, and a woman in a sedan chair. (The Palace Museum, Beijing) "Going up the River" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Bronze statue of Maitreya This gilt bronze image of Maitreya was made in Korea during the Three Kingdoms period (Silla, Paekche, and Koguryo). It depicts the Buddha Maitreya, the Future Buddha who presides over Tushita Heaven. The rounded face, slender body, and gracefully draped robe help convey the idea that the Buddha is neither male nor female, but beyond such distinctions. (Courtesy, Yushin Yoo) Bronze statue of Maitreya Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Horyuji Temple Prince Shotoku sponsored the magnificent Horyuji Temple and staffed it with clergy from Korea. Japanese Buddhist temples, like those in China and Korea, consisted of several buildings within a walled compound. The buildings of the Horyuji Temple (built 670-711; Prince Shotoku's original temple burned down) include the oldest wooden structures in the world, and house some of the best early Buddhist sculpture in Japan. The three main buildings depicted here are the pagoda, housing relics; the main hall, with the temple's principal images; and the lecture hall, for sermons. The five-story pagoda could be seen from far away, much like the steeples of cathedrals in medieval Europe. (The Orion Press) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Iron stirrups This bas-relief from the tomb of Li Shimin depicts the type of horse on which the Tang armies conquered China and Central Asia. The horses were equipped with saddles having high supports in front and back, breastplates, and cruppers, all indicating the importance of high speeds and quick maneuvering on the field of battle. Most significant were the iron stirrups, which were in general use in Central Asia from the time of the Huns (fifth century). The stirrups could support the weight of fully shielded and well-armed soldiers who rose in the saddle to shoot arrows, use lances, or simply urge the horse to greater speeds. (University of Pennsylvania Museum) Iron stirrups Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Movable type, Korean With the improvement of cast bronze tiles, each showing a single character, it was no longer necessary to cast or carve whole pages. Individual tiles could be moved from page frame to page frame. In Korea, where this set was cast, movable type that was more stable in the frame and gave a more pleasing appearance was produced, and all parts of East Asia eventually adopted this form of printing for cheap, popular books. In the mid-1400s Korea also experimented with a fully phonetic form of writing, which in combination with movable type allowed Koreans unprecedented levels of literacy and access to printed works. (Courtesy, Yushin Yoo) Movable type, Korean Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Page from "Tale of the Genji" The narrative handscrolls illustrating The Tale of Genji, a romance of Japanese court life written in the late tenth century by Lady Murasaki Shikibu, are the most celebrated of Japanese aristocratic artworks. The earliest set of illustrations on this theme comes from 1120-1130 and survives only in fragments. The novel of fifty-four chapters originally must have covered at least twenty separate scrolls with hundreds of illustrations and thousands of sheets of calligraphy. It recounts the young manhood of Prince Genji and follows his adventures in Court with a series of ladies; it ends when Genji is 30 years old and is considering the priesthood. (Tokugawa Art Museum, Nagoya) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Prince Shotoku Prince Shotoku (574-622) helped strengthen Yamato rule in Japan by introducing Chinese political and bureaucratic practices. In 604 he issued the "Seventeen Article Constitution," which upheld the rights of the ruler and commanded his subjects to obey him. Prince Shotuku was a generous patron of Buddhist temples and also opened direct relations with China. Here he is shown, along with two attendants, wearing Chinese-style robes and holding the Chinese symbol of office. (Imperial Household Collection, Kyoto) Prince Shotoku Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Samurai armor, 12th c. The samurai were skilled warriors who were rapidly becoming a social class in the twelfth century. Their emergence was made possible by the development of private landed estates. To keep order local lords organized private armies of samurai. In return for each samurai's loyalty and service, the lord granted him land or income. A member of the Taira clan once wore this twelfth-century set of samurai armor. Armor had to serve the practical purpose of defense, but, as in medieval Europe and medieval Islam, it was often embellished, turning armor into works of art. (Suzanne Perrin/Japan Interlink) Samurai armor, 12th c. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Tang women playing polo The Tang Empire, like the Sui, was strongly influenced by Central Asian as well as Chinese traditions. As in many Central Asian cultures, women in Tang China were likely to exercise greater influence in the management of property, in the arts, and in politics than women in Chinese society at later times. They were not excluded from public view, and noblewomen--like these four court ladies--could even compete at polo. The game, widely known in various forms in Central Asia from a very early date, combined the Tang love of riding, military arts, and festive spectacles. (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri (Purchase: acquired through the generosity of Katherine Harvey)) Tang women playing polo Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Tea-leaf jar, Chinese, found in Japan Tea reached Korea and Japan from China as a part of Buddhist culture. By the fourteenth century, when this 42- centimeter-tall tea-leaf jar was imported to Japan from south China, tea from China was still prized, but the Japanese had begun to appreciate the distinctive flavors of teas from different regions of Japan. With the development of the tea ceremony, tea drinking became an art in Japan, and jars such as this one were treasured as art objects and used by tea masters. (The Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation) Tea-leaf jar, Chinese, found in Japan Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Turfan women grind flour Women throughout Central Asia and East Asia were critical to all facets of economic life. In the Turkic areas of Central Asia, women commonly headed households, owned property, and managed businesses. These small figurines, made to be placed in tombs, portray the women of Turfan--a Central Asian area crossed by the Silk Road--performing tasks in the preparation of wheat flour. (Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous District Museum) Turfan women grind flour Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Wall painting of Korean hunters The Korean elite of the late fifth to early sixth century--the date of this tomb mural-- were warriors who took pleasure in hunting. Here men on horses are depicted hunting tigers and deer. The skill and artistry of the painters also testify to the high level attained by Korean artists of the period. (Courtesy, Yushin Yoo) Wall painting of Korean hunters Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Xuanzang returning to Chang'an Monks, missionaries, and pilgrims followed the Silk Road to bring Buddhism to Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang (600-664) left written accounts of his travels following the Silk Road, from which Buddhism had arrived in China. Along the way he encountered Buddhist communities and monasteries that previous generations of missionaries and pilgrims had established. Here we see him returning to the Tang capital Chang'an from Tibet in 645, his ponies laden with Sanskrit texts. (Fujita Art Museum) Xuanzang returning to Chang'an Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Mochica earring Elites of the Moche period (c. 200 B.C.E.– 500 C.E.) on the northern coast of Peru commissioned vast quantities of jewelry. This gold and turquoise earring depicts a warrior- priest wearing an owl-head necklace, holding a removable war club (right hand) and shield (left hand), and flanked by attendants. Peanuts had recently been domesticated in the area, and the peanut beading around the edge suggests the leader's power over natural fertility in an agriculturally marginal region. The reverse side is of silver. (Photograph by Susan Einstein, courtesy of UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History) Mochica earring Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Sesshu painting Sesshu Toyo (1420–1506) is renowned as the creator of a distinctive style in ink painting that contrasted with the Chinese styles that predominated earlier in Japan. He owed much of his training to the development of Japanese commerce in the period of the Ashikaga Shogunate. As a youth he traveled to China, where he first learned his techniques. As he developed his style, a market for his art developed among the merchant communities of the Ashikaga period, and spread to other urban elites. ( Tokyo National Museum/DNP Archives) Sesshu painting Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: East Asia in 1000 East Asia in 1000 The Song Empire did not extend as far as its predecessor, the Tang, and faced powerful rivals to the north--the Liao Dynasty of the Khitans and the Xia Dynasty of the Tanguts. Korea under the Koryo Dynasty maintained regular contact with Song China, but Japan, by the late Heian period, was no longer deeply involved with the mainland. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: East Asia in 1200 East Asia in 1200 By 1200 military families dominated both Korea and Japan, but their borders were little changed. On the mainland, the Liao Dynasty had been overthrown by the Jurchens' Jin Dynasty, which also seized the northern third of the Song Empire. Because the Song relocated its capital to Hangzhou in the south, this period is called the Southern Song period. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: Jin and Southern Song Empires Jin and Southern Song Empires After 1127 Song was forced to abandon its northern territories to Jin. In the ensuing century Southern Song had to continue the policy of annual payments--to Jin rather than Liao--and maintain high military preparedness to prevent further invasions. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: Liao and Song Empires, ca. 1100 Liao and Song Empires, ca. 1100 The states of Liao in the north and Song in the south generally ceased hostilities after a treaty in 1005 stabilized the border and imposed an annual payment on Song China. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Tang Empire in Central and Eastern Asia The Tang Empire in Central and Eastern Asia For over a century the Tang Empire controlled China and a very large part of Central Asia. The defeat of Tang armies in 751 by a force of Arabs, Turks and Tibetans at the Talas River near Tashkent ended Tang westward expansion. To the east, the Tang dominated Annam, and Japan and the Silla kingdom in Korea were leading tributary states of the Tang. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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