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Libraries in Transition From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to Open Access & Digital Repositories CASLIN 2011 Brno, Czech Republic 14 June 2011 Abby.

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Presentation on theme: "Libraries in Transition From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to Open Access & Digital Repositories CASLIN 2011 Brno, Czech Republic 14 June 2011 Abby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Libraries in Transition From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to Open Access & Digital Repositories CASLIN 2011 Brno, Czech Republic 14 June 2011 Abby Clobridge Director, Clobridge Consulting

2 Overview 1) A Brief History of Libraries 2) Open Access & Digital Repositories 3) Interoperability 4) Moving Forward in the New Environment

3 Ancient Library of Alexandria Approx. 3 rd Century BC – 30 BC A Short History of Libraries & Librarianship, Part 1 Wall painting from Pompeii, woman holding wax tablets (codex) – Pre 79 AD.

4 Ancient Library of Alexandria Approx. 3 rd Century BC – 30 BC Movable Type & Gutenberg Press Circa 1439 Images: Stamp: Movable Type: Willi Heidelbach, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License

5 Movable Type & Gutenberg Press Circa 1439 Spread of Printing Press –

6 Spread of Printing Press 1450 – End of 19 th Century Chained books in library: Book photo courtesy of NKZS - ; Archive photo courtesy of Mattox - Spread of Printing Press  more books for libraries

7 Spread of Printing Press 1450 – End of 19 th Century National Union Catalog (NUC) s: “Library Science” Union catalogues – early printed version. National Union Catalog (NUC) – issued serially beginning in the 1950s. Early 1900s: - Manual of Library Economy (1929) - S.R. Ranganathan, The Five Laws of Library Science (1931) - Lee Pierce Butler, An Introduction to Library Science (1933)

8 Spread of Printing Press 1450 – End of 19 th Century National Union Catalog (NUC) s: “Library Science” Early 1900s: - Manual of Library Economy (1929) - S.R. Ranganathan, The Five Laws of Library Science (1931) - Lee Pierce Butler, An Introduction to Library Science (1933) Library economy – emphasis on management and administration of libraries Social science approach – study of books & users; social problems of information exchange

9 Images: Card Catalog from University of Graz Library – by Dr. Marcus Gossler, Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution, Share Alike s: “Library Science” Early 1900s: Library Science Library of Congress, Card Division, University of Graz Library

10 1960s & 1970s: MARC and OPACs Early Computers Early OPACs (1970s) Ohio State University, Dallas Public Library MARC Records (1960s) 1980s: Widespread OPAC Adoption – to replace card catalogs

11 1980s and early 1990s: Pre-Internet, Early Internet Emphasis on using technology to improve or replace services. Early OPACs (1970s) Ohio State University, Dallas Public Library 1980s: Widespread OPAC Adoption Online union catalogues Inter-library loan (ILL) Card catalogue courtesy of Ralev_com -

12 A Matrix Model for Designing and Assessing Network-Enhanced Courses Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D Accessed 12/7/ Substitution 2. Augmentation 3. Modification 4. Redefinition Transformative Not Transformative Model of Technology Adoption

13 Librarians’ Work – Emphasis on Books + Buildings The Librarian (1556) Giuseppe Arcimboldo

14 Libraries = mostly static environment until early 1990s. The Librarian (1556) Giuseppe Arcimboldo

15 Early 1990s: Libraries & the Internet St. Petersburg Times (1993)

16 Early 1990s: Libraries & the Internet Tap into the FUTURE NOW!, St. Petersburg Times (1993) Shirley Dugan Kennedy Internet isn’t just for computer whizzes. Ordinary people are taking advantage of it too. Internet access through FIRN, the Florida Information Resource Network, an and conferencing system operated by the state Department of Education primarily for teachers and librarians Messages only take a few hours to be delivered.

17 Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information ecosystem Visualization from the Opte Project of the various routes through a portion of the Internet, circa Image from the Opte Project (www.opte.org) via Wikipedia. Changes in: Technology User Behavior User Expectations Visualization of routes through a portion of the Internet

18 Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information ecosystem Media types Direct access to objects themselves Digital Natives Class of 2012: Born in 1991 Teaching & Learning How we work Gaming

19 Late 1990s/2000s – Turning point for libraries and the information ecosystem

20 Now What? Information ecosystem is more complex than ever. How should we define our role? How do we position ourselves for the future? What do our skills and expertise make us uniquely suited to do? What are the areas where we can add the most value? What do our users need? Want? Expect?

21 René Magritte, "La Trahison des Images" ("The Treachery of Images") (1928-9) or "Ceci n'est pas une pipe" ("This is not a pipe") Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media – “We need new mental models.”

22 This is not a library. What is a library? What do librarians do?

23 Support for information. creating collecting describing curating disseminating preserving [ ]

24 2000s: How do we think about information and knowledge? How can we harness ICT to interact with information in new ways? How do we access information? Who has access to information? What are the barriers to access? How can we use, reuse, manipulate, and work with information and data? How can we ensure access to born-digital information in the future? How do we define information today?

25 Now What? Open Access: Demand for immediate, complete access to materials. Support for new forms, new content types. Continually-evolving landscape. Uses ICT for redefinition of our work. Usage data  measure value.

26 Open Access (OA) “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder.” – Peter Suber, A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access

27 Purpose of OA To use Information Communication Technology ( ICT ) to increase and enhance dissemination of scholarship.

28

29 Late 1990s – 2000s Digitization of archival collections Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001) Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETDs) Library initiated External to libraries

30 What does this mean? Through Open Access… - Increased access - Further, broader (global) dissemination - Impact of research increases - Increased visibility - Funding dollars have more impact

31 Two Methods for Open Access: 1) Publish in an Open Access journal. 2) Publish in any peer-reviewed journal and deposit refereed version in an Open Access repository. Peer-review is critical for either method.

32 Two Kinds of “Free” Gratis – “Free as in beer.” Free price. Libre – “Free as in speech.” Lack of restrictions.

33 2011 State of Open Access & Digital Repositories Today Nearly 2000 repositories registered. Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) – Repository 66.org – Repository Maps – maps.repository66.org

34 2011 State of Open Access Journals Today Over 6500 journals registered. Directory of Open Access Journals – DOAJ –

35 OA Monographs Enhanced publications Linked data Grey literature ETDs Digitized materials from archives & museums OA Monographs Enhanced publications Linked data Grey literature ETDs Digitized materials from archives & museums 2010s – Repository landscape continues to change Types of Repository Content Open Access repositories Open Educational Resources (OER) repositories / learning object repositories Learning management systems / courseware Digital asset management systems (DAMs) Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) ePortfolios Open Access repositories Open Educational Resources (OER) repositories / learning object repositories Learning management systems / courseware Digital asset management systems (DAMs) Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) ePortfolios Types of Repository Systems

36 Research funding agencies Publishers Researchers National policy makers NGOs Research funding agencies Publishers Researchers National policy makers NGOs 2010s – Repository landscape continues to change Stakeholders National Institutions of Health UNESCO, OECD, FAO, Broadband Commission European Commission – FP7 Open Access Pilot Wellcome Trust National mandates? Denmark, Spain…

37 The real promise of Open Access is the potential that stems from the aggregation of materials. -Global access. -New types of analysis. -Overarching view of research output.

38 Interoperability Ability of systems to pass information back and forth between each other in a usable format. Metadata consistency necessary for several kinds of interoperability.

39 The real value of Open Access lies in the potential to aggregate research outputs, present information in different ways, and allow for new types of data extraction and analysis – all possible because of interoperability.

40 Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights Dublin Core Metadata Standard 15 core elements Can be used to describe anything Unqualified Dublin Core

41 Example – Qualifiers for “Date” field: - Created - Valid - Available - Issued - Modified Example – Qualifiers for “Date” field: - Created - Valid - Available - Issued - Modified Dublin Core Metadata Standard “Qualifiers” to refine or give more specificity to fields Qualified Dublin Core

42 Open Access Initiative – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) Process of scraping metadata records from source and replicated in another collection. Requires unqualified Dublin Core.

43 Harvested collection: Includes metadata for records and links to the objects at their host institution Objects themselves are not harvested – only metadata. Collection from Michigan Collection from Colorado Collection from Scotland Collection from Japan Collection from India Harvesting

44 Early 2000s – Early OAI-PMH Interoperability Projects Union catalogues 2.0 Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) “More than one million records of electronic theses and dissertations.” “Makes individual collections of NDLTD member institutions and consortia appear as one seamless digital library of ETDs.” “Union catalogue of millions of records form open access resources”

45 Current Interoperability Projects - Supporting researchers’ workflows -Single deposit, multiple repositories OAI-ORE: Binds together objects that are related to each other. OAI-ORE

46 Interoperability Challenges Technical: - New content types - Software and systems - New service layers - Usage data - Consistent identification and terminology - Language challenges Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) – Interoperability Briefing, pre-print, 01-June-2011

47 Interoperability Challenges Technical: - Global context - Long-term sustainability of guidelines and standards - Institutional support for implementing guidelines Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) – Interoperability Briefing, pre-print, 01-June-2011

48 Positioning ourselves for the future

49 creating collecting describing curating disseminating preserving [ ] Support for information. What is a library? What do librarians do? What is most important?

50 The information ecosystem is global.

51 We need to move past artificial silos.

52 We are all information producers, consumers, and collectors.

53 We need to facilitate and prioritize discoverability and usability of content, not simply access. Metadata matters, open licensing matters.

54 Emphasis on research.

55

56 New Roles, New Skills Advocacy. Changing relationship with faculty and researchers. Changing relationship with publishers. Organizational challenges are vast. Technical challenges are significant.

57 A Matrix Model for Designing and Assessing Network-Enhanced Courses Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D Accessed 12/7/ Substitution 2. Augmentation 3. Modification 4. Redefinition Transformative Not Transformative Model of Technology Adoption

58 Libraries in Transition From Book Collections & Union Catalogues to Open Access & Digital Repositories CASLIN 2011 Brno, Czech Republic 14 June 2011 Abby Clobridge Director, Clobridge Consulting


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