Introduction Goal: Designing an ideal classroom for video-based instruction for contextual learning. Video-based instruction will be designed to engage learners in active, constructive, authentic, and cooperative learning.
Good Classroom? 1. Comfortable & accessible 2. Quiet, private, and free from interruptions 3. Sufficient space 4. Good visibility (Noe, 2002) (Noe, 2002)
Details To Be Considered 1. Seating arrangement 2. Room shape 3. TV screen & whiteboard 4. Chairs & tables 5. Wall, floor, & ceiling 6. Lighting & window 7. Electrical outlets 8. Temperature 9. Density
Seating Arrangement Fan-type seating: Allowing learners to see from any point in the room. Learners can easily switch from listening to a presentation to practicing in groups, and this help learners communicate easily with everyone in the room. Instructor
Room Shape Half circle room: For fan-type seating arrangement, half circle room would be desirable. This room would also help learners to concentrate on TV screen. Wall for a poster presentation
TV Screen & White Board Large flat HD TV screen for using DVD: This is expected to provide learners with opportunity to see high-quality video. Whiteboard: Movable white board is used TV Screen Whiteboard The location of TV screen & whiteboard
Chairs & Tables Movable chairs: Chairs should have wheels, swivels, and backs Tables: The shape is oval Movable ChairTable
Wall, Floor, & Ceiling Wall: Acoustic wall panel needs to be placed for soundproofing. Floor: Carpeting needs to be placed in the classroom to avoid noise. Ceiling: Ten-foot-high ceiling is preferable. Color of wall & floor: Dark (or neutral) colors are preferable because they are not distracting.
Lighting & Window Lighting: Incandescent lighting with dimmers is needed. Dimmer is used when watching TV. Window: Not necessary.
Electrical Outlet Outlets should be available every six feet around the room, so that learners can use those. For this, outlets will be installed on the floor. A network jack should be next to the outlets. Outlets & a network jack for the instructor should be available.
Temperature Excessive heat is a well-documented environmental irritant that appears to cause hostile thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in some individuals (Anderson, Deuser, and DeNeve, 1995). When working in groups, learners are more active physically and are sitting closer to one another. In addition, TV screen and other machines would generate heat. Therefore, the average temperature of the classroom for video-based instruction would need to be reduced. Excessive heat is a well-documented environmental irritant that appears to cause hostile thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in some individuals (Anderson, Deuser, and DeNeve, 1995). When working in groups, learners are more active physically and are sitting closer to one another. In addition, TV screen and other machines would generate heat. Therefore, the average temperature of the classroom for video-based instruction would need to be reduced.
Density According to Glass & Smith (1978), higher social density results in lower student achievement. When engaged in a collaborative activity that requires mobility, high density may be more problematic (Heller, Groff, & Solomon, 1977). Therefore, spatial density of the classroom for the video-based instruction should be such that both learners and instructors have enough room to move easily from group to group; four to seven feet between groups.
Classroom Layout Door 2 TV Screen Whiteboard Cabinet 2 (DVD Player, VCR, Laptops) Cabinet 1 (Videodiscs, Videotapes, CD) Door 1 Instructor
References Craig, R. L. (1996). The ASTD training and development handbook (4 th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Graetz, K. A. & Goliber, M. J. (2002). Designing collaborative learning places: Psychological foundations and new frontiers. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 92 (4), Noe, R. A. (2002). Employee training & development (2 nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.