Presentation on theme: "JOINTS & MOVEMENTS JOINTS & MOVEMENTS By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem Dr. Sanaa Sharawy."— Presentation transcript:
JOINTS & MOVEMENTS JOINTS & MOVEMENTS By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem Dr. Sanaa Sharawy
By the end of the lecture, the student should be able to: Name the 3 different types of joints. Describe the structure of each type. Name an example of each type. Describe the movements which occur in each type. Objectives
Prof. Saeed Makarem 3 WHAT IS A JOINT ? jointEvery bone in the body forms a joint with at least one or more bone, (except the hyoid bone in the neck). two functions:Joints have two functions: securely. –They hold the bones together securely. mobility. –Also it give the rigid skeleton mobility. X-ray of the knee joint INTRODUCTION Femur Patella Tibia Fibula It is a meeting of two or more bones.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 4 CLASSIFICATION Joints could be classified by two ways: According to functionAccording to function Or According to structure.According to structure.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 5 I- FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION functional amount of movement The functional classification depends on the amount of movement allowed by the joint. On this basis, there are: 1.Synarthrosesimmovable joints: Skull sutures. 1.Synarthroses or immovable joints: Skull sutures. 1- Synarthroses or immovable joints, 2- Amphiarthroses or slightly movable joints. 3- Diarthroses or freely movable joints.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 6 2. Amphiarthrosesslightly movable joints, e.g. Symphysis pubis. 2. Amphiarthroses or slightly movable joints, e.g. Symphysis pubis.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 7 3.Diarthroses freely movable joints, (synovial joint) 3.Diarthroses or freely movable joints, (synovial joint)
Prof. Saeed Makarem 8 Freely movable joints limbs,Freely movable joints predominate in the limbs, where mobility is important. Immovable & slightly movable joints axial skeleton, Immovable & slightly movable joints are restricted mainly to the axial skeleton, where firm attachments and protection of internal organs are priorities.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 9 II- STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION.This classification depends upon the tissue which connects the bones. three typesThere are three types of joints: ibrous,A. Fibrous, B. Cartilage,B. Cartilage, or, C. Synovial joint, where a joint cavityC. Synovial joint, where a joint cavity separates the bones. They are called: 1.Fibrous joints: Skull sutures
Prof. Saeed Makarem 10 2.Cartilaginous joints: Intervertebral discs.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 11 3.Synovial joints.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 12 AS A GENERAL RULE: fibrous joints immovable fibrous joints are immovable synovial joints freely movable synovial joints are freely movable cartilaginous jointsslightly movable (amphiarthroses) most cartilaginous joints are slightly movable (amphiarthroses)
Prof. Saeed Makarem 13 FIBROUS JOINTS fibrous joints, fibrous tissue.In fibrous joints, the bones are united by fibrous tissue. Examples: suturesA- Skull sutures In this joint, the irregular edges of bones interlock and are bound together tightly by fibers tissue, where no movement are allowed. fibrous joints, fibrous tissue.In fibrous joints, the bones are united by fibrous tissue. Examples: suturesA- Skull sutures In this joint, the irregular edges of bones interlock and are bound together tightly by fibers tissue, where no movement are allowed.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 14 B- Inferior tibiofibular joint, where no or very minimal movement is allowed. syndesmoses.It is called syndesmoses. FIBROUS JOINTS
Prof. Saeed Makarem 15 CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS cartilaginous joints, cartilage. In cartilaginous joints, the 2 bone ends are connected by cartilage. Examples: ubic symphysis (slightly movable(amphiarthroses) 1.Pubic symphysis of the pelvis (slightly movable (amphiarthroses)
Prof. Saeed Makarem 16 intervertebral discs fibrocartilage, slightly movable (amphiarthroses) 2.The intervertebral discs of the vertebral column, where the articulating bone surfaces are connected by pads (discs) of fibrocartilage, are also slightly movable (amphiarthroses). CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
Prof. Saeed Makarem 17 hyaline-cartilage Epiphysial plates immovable (synarthroses) The hyaline-cartilage Epiphysial plates of growing long bones are immovable (synarthroses) cartilaginous joints. REMEBER !
Prof. Saeed Makarem 18 SYNOVIAL JOINTS Synovial joints separated by a joint cavitySynovial joints are those in which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity which contains a synovial fluid. all joints of the limbs.They account for all joints of the limbs.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 19 FEATURES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS 1.Articular cartilage. The 2 ends of the bones are covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage. 1- Articular cartilage. 2- Fibrous capsule. 3- Synovial membrane 4- Joint cavity. 5- Extracapsular ligaments.
Prof. Saeed Makarem 20 2.Fibrous capsule. The joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous capsule. synovial membrane. 3. The capsule is lined with a synovial membrane.
Prof. Saeed Makarem Joint cavity synovial fluid).Inside the synovial membrane there is a lubricating (synovial fluid).
Prof. Saeed Makarem Reinforcing ligaments. ligaments. (extracapsular ligaments). The fibrous capsule is usually reinforced with ligaments. (extracapsular ligaments).
Prof. Saeed Makarem 23 Based on the shape, the synovial joints can be classified as: a)Plane, b)Hinge, c)Pivot, d)Condyloid, e)Saddle, f)Ball and socket. TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS BASED ON SHAPE
24 PLANE JOINTS plane joint, flat,In a plane joint, the articular surfaces are flat, and only short slipping or gliding movements are allowed. intercarpal joints of the wrist.Example: The intercarpal joints of the wrist. Prof. Saeed Makarem
25 HINGE JOINTS hinge joint,In a hinge joint, the cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another bone. one plane,Movement is allowed in just one plane, like a hinge. Uniaxial ;Hinge joints are Uniaxial ; they allow movement around one axis only. elbow & ankle,Examples: elbow & ankle, the interphalangeal joints of the fingers. Axis of movement Prof. Saeed Makarem
26 PIVOT JOINT pivot jointIn a pivot joint, the rounded end of one bone fits into a ring of bone (or ligaments). UniaxialPivot joints are Uniaxial joints, because bone can turn only around its long axis, proximal or superior radioulnar joint & Median atlantoaxial joint.Examples: proximal or superior radioulnar joint & Median atlantoaxial joint. Axis of movement
Prof. Saeed Makarem 27 CONDYLOID JOINTS condyloid joint,In a condyloid joint, the egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another. oval.Both of these articular surfaces are oval. two axes, biaxial, knuckle (metacarpophalangeal joints).Movement occurs around two axes, hence these joints are biaxial, as in knuckle (metacarpophalangeal joints). Condyloid joints allow the moving bone to move: a)from side to side and b)back and forth, but the bone cannot rotate around its long axis. Axes of movement
Prof. Saeed Makarem 28 SADDLE JOINTS saddle joints,In saddle joints, each articular surface has both convex and concave areas, like a saddle. biaxialThese biaxial joints allow essentially the same movements as condyloid joints, but there is slight rotation. carpometacarpal jointExample: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. Axes of movement
29 BALL-AND-SOCKET JOINTS ball & socket joint,In a ball & socket joint, the spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another. multiaxialI t is a multiaxial joints allow movement in all axes, including rotation, and are the most freely movable joints. shoulder hip.Examples: shoulder and hip. ball & socket joint,In a ball & socket joint, the spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another. multiaxialI t is a multiaxial joints allow movement in all axes, including rotation, and are the most freely movable joints. shoulder hip.Examples: shoulder and hip. Prof. Saeed Makarem
30 FLEXION, EXTENSION & HYPEREXTENSION Prof. Saeed Makarem MOVEMENTS
Prof. Saeed Makarem 31 ABDUCTION, ADDUCTION, CIRCUMDUCTION ROTATION
INVERSION AND EVERSION 32 Prof. Saeed Makarem DORSIFLEXION AND PLANTAR FLEXION
Prof. Saeed Makarem 33 SUPINATION AND PRONATION