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Alternative sytem of growing tomatoes

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1 Alternative sytem of growing tomatoes
The Green Q way. 10 February 2010 André Kool, crop consultant, Green Q

2 Alternative sytem of growing tomatoes
Starting points Double screen Low density start heads / m2 Single grafted plant (1 on 1) Doubled in spring f.e. 1.673.33 Stemdensity and plantload better in balance with natural light

3 Content Growing aspects under double screen Advantage Disadvantages
Points of extra attention Generative crop steering Plant density Greenhouse air humidity Economics Technical aspects under double screen Use of heating pipes (rail pipes and growth pipes) Crop planning

4 1. Growing aspects Goals? Energy saving?
Fast early production to get high prices? Stronger crop, less sensitive for diseases (virus…)?

5 Installation Movable screen in top
Fixed AC-foil below on seperate system of wires above crop wire: condensation drop will be between rows Stable air layer between screens gives extra isolation

6 Advantages Better start climate for young plant
Higher humidity at start. Lower pipe temperatures. When opening movable screen no cold air falling on crop especially nice in case of pepino virus. Less rduction of light at closed plastic foil compare to closed movable screen. Easier growing at higher temperature levels because of higher isolation of greenhouse (especially with low density start) Energy saving at both screens closed: 50-55% Only movable screen =40% Only fixed foil =20%

7 Disadvantages Horizontal temperature differences
Because of rolling down of cold air above foil and perforation foil cold air can fall down on some spotscompartments between screens can be made. Light reduction foil 10% Too late removal of foil is higher risk on diseases

8 Points of extra attention
Keep more generative growing stategy (climate) Plant temperature at day time is lower because of less direct light Plant temperature at night is higher because of less radiation to outside. Big DIF steering required (warm day, cool night) In the afternoon the greenhouse climate should make the plant evaporate and the plant color should be “dark” at the end of the afternoon. Heating with a growth pipe is a good help….

9 Points of extra attention
Low density start (f.e heads / m2 versus 2.5 heads / m2 ) Less crop under foil will create less problems with humidity Low density and low plantload more light per head higher “growth speed” possiblehigher 24-hr-average Less problems with humidity Better utilisation double screen Better growing conditions in case of pepino-virus

10 Points of extra attention
Development crop load at 2 start densities

11 Points of extra attention…..humidity
Maximum tolerance of humidity levels under screen? At cooling down greenhouse air less risk on condensation. At warming up greenhouse air high risk of condensation. HD pre-night > HD after-night > HD morning> HD day >3.0 (preferably in afternoon)

12 Points of extra attention…..humidity
Humidity control by: 1.Ventilation above plastic foil (outside no frost) 2.Air-movement by minimum (growth) pipe Warm air can contain more water lower humidity Removal of plastic foil When you humidity control becomes a problem A movable second screen would even be better………

13 Economics Costs* Materials plastic foil screen € 0.15 per m²
Labour (experienced) € 0.05 per m² Total € 0.20 per m² *Dutch price levels Savings Depending on outside circumstances 5-20% extra in respectively mild and cold winter

14 2. Technical aspects Energy saving Type en perforation
Ventilation above plastic foil Cooling down in pre-night Screen policy Measuring box above screen Heating with what pipes?

15 Energy saving Movable screen (LS) f.e. 40% (climate computer!!)
Fixed plastic foil % ?  Check pipe-and greenhouse temperature in graphs “Too slow” reacting pipe, delayed GH –temperature higher energy saving % on computer “Too aggressive” reacting pipe, overreaction of GH-temperature higher energy saving % on computer In general: too big fluctuations in pipe-and greenhouse temperature can be indication of wrong setpoints for energy saving % Not good for climate and energy consumption.

16 Energy consumption at various scenario’s 18 ºC Greenhouse temperature Modern well isolated greenhouse, no windspeed, no radiation, no precipitation mm pipes per 8 m (1,60 meter row distance) Figurs are pipe-temperatures with (….) gas consumption in m3/ha T-outside no screen Plastic foil Movable Plastic+movable -10 74 (188) 66 (152) 58 (120) 50 (110) -5 58 (123) 50 (91) 46 (76) 51 (95) 45 (73) 41 (59) 5 49 (88) 44 (69) 38 (52) 35 (42) 10 40 (55) 32 (33) 30 (26)

17 Type and perforation AC, otherwise to dark and dripping
No 5 x 5 cm too much cold air falling on lowest points Standard 10 x 10 1-2….poles near sidewalls: 40 x 40 With fans blow from warm spots to cold spots At highest spot (=warmest spot ) make plastic movable (at middle pathway).

18 Ventilation above plastic screen
With mild weather and / or very sunny weather : Ventilation above fixed plastic screen because of: Rising greenhouse temperature Too high greenhouse air humidity

19 Ventilation above plastic screen Points of special interest:
Ventilation setpoint close to heating setpoint (dead zone 0°C) Reduction ventilation setpoint at high greenhouse humidity Quick ventilation at windside (no delay at 0 m/s windspeed) Maximum window position limited at high windspeed to prevent damage to plastic screen. Sunny and frostVentilation should be possiblefrostprotection setpoint based on radiation After removal plastic foil don’t forget to put back “normal” setpoints

20 Cooling down to pre-night
Difficult at mild weather (>10°C). With ventilation setpoint follow parallel heating setpoint. With “cold” pipes. 25°C is too warm. Pumps out. As long GH temperature moves downno condensation. If necessary ventilation also at the windside.

21 Screen policy (movable screen)
There is a fixed plastic foil so movable screen…. Earlier open, closed later (only closed with frost) Smaller dead bands and delays, bigger steps. Easy gapping based on temperature or humidity Ventilation setpoint close to heating setpoint After removal plastic foil don’t forget to put back “normal” screen setpoints

22 Measuring box above screen
Measures temperature rise above screen Most direct signal to open screen Measuring box above screen to open ánd close movable screen above fixed foil In case of only 1 (movable) screen : measuring box only help to open screen

23 Heating with what pipes?
(Double) screen means colder pipes Less radiation and less air movement Higher risk on a “dead” climate Heat closer to the plant with growth pipe (=primary heating system) Thinner pipes = hotter pipes locally more radiation and air movement Heat at the point where you need the heat: close to the plant…..

24 Growing Pipes (spiral)
Heating system Rail pipe Growing Pipes (spiral)

25 Heating with what pipes?
Thinner pipe  Relative big surface compared to water content Relative high lost of heat on the lenght  Bigger delta-T (Difference supply-return water temperature) Because of this thinner pipe, preferably a spiral (equal discharge of heat over the lenght of the crop row) Single growth pipe?  Preferably a thicker pipe (less delta-T)

26 Heating with what pipes?
Primary heating with growth pipe results in generatieve, weak and thin plant? Not necessarily.Take care off: When heating primarily with growth pipe heating setpoint slightly lower than “conventional” (1-2°C) will also save energy Reduction of maximum growth pipe temperature at low humidity Think more in plant temperature…….. Keep LOOKING at plant

27 Heating with what pipes?
There is only sufficient air movement if pipe temperature is minimal 20°C higher than surrounding greenhouse air temperature..

28 Heating with what pipes?
Create air movement there where it’s required: Close to the crop (between) Position growth pipe (under of above growth gutter) Influence radiation on truss / fruits Locally more radiation and air movement with a smaller but hotter pipe Thinner rail-pipe (5145 mm= 2-3°C higher pipe temperature) Growth pipe (spiral) versus rail pipe (4528 mm = 10°C higher pipe temperature ) (total consumption energy equal)

29 Heating with what pipes?
At lower heat demand (double screen) it’s more inportant to bring heat and air movement closer to the plant Heating closer to the plant (primary with growth pipe) result in more air movement close to the plant and a warmer plant Because of this the heating setpoint can be chosen a little bit lower Generally this way of heating results in a more efficient use of energy

30 Crop planning “Live” demonstation of Green Scheduler
crop planning program

31 Questions?

32 Thanks for your attention!

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