5 (B) Structural classification Based on type of connecting tissue and presence or absence of joint cavity: 1. Fibrous: composed of intervening fibrous tissue with no joint cavity. Immovable or slightly movable. 2. Cartilaginous: articulating bones are united by cartilage (hyaline or fibrocartilage) with no joint cavity. 3. Synovial: articulating bones are separated by a fluid-filled joint cavity.
7 Fibrous joints1. Sutures: articular surfaces are connected by a thin layer ofconnective tissue. They are confined to the skull andare immovable.2. Syndesmoses: bones are connected by a considerably greateramount of connective tissue than in sutures inthe form of interosseous ligaments andmembranes. Slight movement is permitted.e.g. interosseous tibiofibular joints,interroseous radioulnar joints.3. Gomphoses (peg and socket joint): articulation of teeth inalveolar sockets of mandible and maxilla byperiodontal ligament.
11 Synovial joints Most evolved and freely movable joints Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluidOften termed as diarthrodial jointsComponents:1. Fibrous capsule2. Synovial membrane3. Ligaments4. Articular cartilage5. Articular disc or meniscus6. Bursae7. Fat pads (Haversian glands)
12 Classification of Synovial joints (A) According to shape of articular surfaces: 1. Plane 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Condylar 5. Ellipsoid 6. Saddle 7. Ball and socket
13 Plane joints Articular surfaces are nearly flat. Allow gliding movements.e.g. intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
14 Hinge joints (Ginglymus) Articular surfaces are pulley shaped.Movements are permitted only in one plane (transverse axis).Most common joints.e.g. elbow, knee, ankle and interphalangeal joints.
15 Pivot joints (Trochoid joints) Rounded end of one bone fits into the concavity of another bone.The rounded part is surrounded by a ligament.Limited rotation around a central axis.e.g. superior radio-ulnar and median atlanto-axial joints.
16 Condylar jointsRound articular surface of one bone fits into a socket-type articular surface of another bone.Permit movements in two directions.e.g. knee and temporo-mandibular joints.
17 Ellipsoid jointsElliptical convex surface of one bone articulates with elliptical concave surface of another.Permit movements in two directions.Combination of movements cause circumduction.e.g. wrist and atlanto-occipital joints.
18 Saddle (sellar) joints Articular surfaces are reciprocally saddle shaped i.e. concavo-convex.Allows a wide range of movement.e.g. first carpo-metacarpal, sterno-clavicular, incudo-malleolar joints.
19 Ball and socket (spheroidal) joints Rounded convex surfaceof one bone fits into the cup-like socket of another bone.Permits greatest range of movements.e.g. shoulder, hip and incudo-stapedial joints.
20 (B) According to plane of movements Uniaxial: Hinge and PivotBiaxial: Condylar, ellipsoid, saddleMultiaxial: Ball and socketMultiaxialUniaxialBiaxial
21 (C) According to number of articulating bones Simple (2 bones)Compound (more than 2 bones)
23 Special movements: 1. Inversion: movement of the foot medially 2 Special movements: 1. Inversion: movement of the foot medially 2. Eversion: movement of the foot laterally 3. Protraction: movement of the mandible forward 4. Retraction: movement of the protracted part back to its starting position 5. Elevation: lifting a body part superiorly 6. Depression: moving the elevated part inferiorly 7. Opposition: touching the thumb to the tips of other fingers
24 REFERENCES1. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy, Vol Grant’s Method of Anatomy, 11th Edition. 3. Vishram Singh. General Anatomy, 1st Edition.
25 MCQs 1. All of the following are examples of the fibrous joint except: a) Sutureb) Syndesmosisc) Symphysisd) Gomphosis
26 MCQs2. All of the following are examples of the synovial joint except:a) Pivotb) Saddlec) Syndesmosisd)Ellipsoid
27 MCQs 3. Subtype gomphosis is classified under: a) Biaxial synovial jointb) Symphysisc) Fibrous jointd) Synchondrosis
28 MCQs4. All of the following are characteristic features of a synovial joint except: a)Articular surfaces are covered by a articular cartilage b) Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid c)Mostly are freely movable joints d) Articular cartilage are covered by synovial membrane
29 MCQs5. All of the following secondary cartilaginous joints belong to axial skeleton except: a)Manubriosternal joint b) Intervertebral discs c) Symphysis pubis d) Symphysis menti