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Ass. Prof. Faculty of Medicine

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1 Ass. Prof. Faculty of Medicine
Essentials of Human Anatomy The Skeletal System 4 Joints of the Skeletal System Chapter 5 Dr Fadel Naim Ass. Prof. Faculty of Medicine IUG 1

2 Joints of the Skeletal System
Articulations Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction

3 Naming of Joints Usually derived from the names of the articulating bones.

4 Classification of Joints
Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact synarthrotic immovable amphiarthrotic slightly movable diarthrotic freely movable Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints most complex allow free movement

5 Fibrous Joints 3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis
a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones amphiarthrotic lies between tibia and fibula

6 Fibrous Joints Suture between flat bones synarthrotic
thin layer of connective tissue connects bones Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic

7 Cartilaginous Joints 2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis
bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic

8 Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones
pubis symphysis joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae amphiarthrotic

9 General Anatomy of Synovial Joints
Basic features: articular capsule joint cavity synovial fluid articular cartilage ligaments nerves blood vessels

10 General Anatomy of Synovial Joints – Accessory Structures
Bursae fibrous, saclike structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined by a synovial membrane Fatpads often distributed along the periphery of a synovial joint act as packing material and provide some protection for the joint fill the spaces that form when bones move and the joint cavity changes shape Tendons attaches a muscle to a bone help stabilize joints



13 Types of Synovial Joints
Classified by the shapes of their articulating surfaces Types of movement they allow uniaxial if the bone moves in just one plane biaxial if the bone moves in two planes multiaxial (or triaxial) if the bone moves in multiple planes

14 Types of Synovial Joints
From least movable to most freely movable, the six specific types of synovial joints are: planar (gliding) joints hinge joints pivot joints condyloid (ellipsoid) joints saddle joints ball-and-socket joints

15 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges

16 Types of Synovial Joints
Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges

17 Types of Synovial Joints
Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

18 Types of Synovial Joints

19 Mobility and Stability in Joints
Motion permitted ranges from none to various extensive motions. Structure determines both its mobility and its stability. more mobile = less stable

20 Types of Joint Movements
abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension

21 Types of Joint Movements
rotation/circumduction supination/pronation

22 Types of Joint Movements
eversion/inversion protraction/retraction elevation/depression

23 Shoulder Joint ball-and-socket head of humerus
glenoid cavity of scapula loose joint capsule bursae ligaments prevent displacement very wide range of movement

24 Shoulder Joint

25 Elbow Joint hinge joint gliding joint flexion and extension
trochlea of humerus trochlear notch of ulna gliding joint capitulum of humerus head of radius flexion and extension many reinforcing ligaments stable joint

26 Elbow Joint

27 Hip Joint ball-and-socket joint head of femur acetabulum of coxa
heavy joint capsule many reinforcing ligaments less freedom of movement than shoulder joint

28 Hip Joint

29 Knee Joint largest joint most complex
medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae

30 Knee Joint

31 Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging
Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity Disuse hampers the blood supply Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer

32 Cycle of Life: Articulations
Bone development and the sequence of ossification between birth and skeletal maturity affect joints Fontanels between cranial bones disappear Epiphysial plates ossify at maturity Older adults ROM decreases Changes in gait occur Skeletal diseases manifest as joint problems Abnormal bone growth (lipping)—influences joint motion Disease conditions can be associated with specific developmental periods

33 Clinical Application Joint Disorders Sprains
damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints forceful twisting of joint Bursitis inflammation of a bursa overuse of a joint Tendonitis An inflammation of the tendon Caused by excessive use.

34 Arthritis A group of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints that occur in various forms. swelling of the joint pain stiffness Most prevalent crippling disease in the United States. gouty arthritis osteoarthritis :A condition which results when the articular cartilage is enlarged or as deteriorated this results is a decrease in the range of movement of the joint. rheumatoid arthritis: An inflammation of a joint which is the result of an autoimmune disease



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