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SOC 531: Community Organization Walton’s Stories of Monterey.

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Presentation on theme: "SOC 531: Community Organization Walton’s Stories of Monterey."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOC 531: Community Organization Walton’s Stories of Monterey

2 When Was Monterey Created? Prehistory: Eric Wolf, Europe and the People Without History (University of California, 1982) – Native Americans (pp. 14-17 in Walton) - 200-400 people in triblet (village) Six extended families Hunters and gatherers Fighting with other triblets Coastal center of trade/commerce By 1770, 3,000 people in 20-30 villages

3 Spaniards (pp. 21-3) 1770: 43 men in military outpost – Soldiers made to work – Problems with desertion – Fraternization, trade with Native Americans – Concubinage and rape of Indian women Franciscans in Mission – Teachers of European civilization – Religious – secular

4 Mission Serra built Carmel Mission in 1871 – Water and land – Distance from soldiers – Mission recruited women and children but undermined Indian society Submission of weak Resistance by strong – But not self-sufficient Irregular supply ships Dependent on Indians for food 1875: Soldiers married Indians and formed artisanal town of Carmel

5 Spanish Period: 1770-1820 Presidio Mission Village (becomes Monterey) Class conflict (pp. 39-40) – Labor discipline (p. 39) – Honor among thieves (p. 40)

6 Mexican Period: 1924-1946 Mission (pp. 60-61) – Lost political support – Remained economic resource Presidio: soldiers in two barracks (p. 66) Town: 700 persons (including soldiers) – 88 residences in 1836 (p. 66) Hinterland – 28 ranches with 587 people

7 Mexican Period (continued) Presidio and soldiers dominated town – 52 single men (in barracks) – 15 families (in houses) Farmers were numerous – 35 households – Garden plots Artisans, Merchants, Professionals Large Middle class

8 Occupations for Households in Monterey, 1836 OccupationPercent of HouseholdsNumber of Households Military36%67 Farmer19%35 Artisan15%27 Merchant11%20 Professional09%17 Cook06%11 Laborer04%07 Total100%184

9 Monterey 1836 Large middle class Petty bourgeois concerns with trade and public order (pp. 72-74) Expanding land grants (p. 76) – Around 30 Spanish land grants in State – Over 800 Mexican land grants Expanding trade and influx of Anglo-American capital (pp. 78-79)

10 Bourgeois Revolution? Clearly Yankee merchant and landed capitalist support for independence – Bourgeois colonial revolt – Similar to 1776? Context of sectional and international politics Class conflict and political rights of labor – “Indian agency” and class struggle (p. 94) – Citizenship and political claims (pp. 96-97)

11 Yankee Progress/Property: 1846-87 Land: divesting/stealing municipal lands Growing inequality Racial/ethnic conflict (changing form and content) Speculators versus squatters Revolution from above – Railroads – Ranchers/speculators – Tourism Pacific Improvement Co Hotel Del Monte

12 Industry and Community: 1917-1938 Del Monte Properties versus Ethnic working class (p. 183) Fishing industry – Race and politics (p. 183) – Overfishing and collapse in 1950s (p. 191) Class, status, community – Fishermen (Table 3., p. 193) Sicilian, Japanese, Spanish Tight-knit ethnic family businesses (kin-based) Catholic women (pp. 201-5)

13 Class Status and Community (cont) Cannery (Table 4, pp. 196-7) – Employers – Employees U.S. born women Class relations – Fishermen: share of catch – Cannery: piece or wage rate; Unionization (p. 201) AFL-CIO struggles (pp. 211-3)

14 Historical Present Urban renewal in 1950s and 1960s (pp. 240-9) – Big business development interests – Petty bourgeois commercial and working class residential resistance Environmentalism (pp. 249-56) – in 1970s – Smart growth coalition emerging

15 Five Communities in Monterey Native American commercial center for hunting and gathering triblets Outpost of New Spain – Mission farm – Presidio – Village: artisans and traders

16 Five Communities (continued) Beyond the reach of Mexico – Mission farm without Spanish support – Californio Rancho hinterland develops – Caucus of land and commercial interests (see Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Beacon Press, 1966) – Californio cattlemen and Yankee merchants (see Hogan 1990; Robert Dykstra, Cattle Towns (Knopf, 1968)

17 Five Communities (cont.) American fishing village (Cannery Row) – Large land and tourism interests: RR & hotel, Pebble Beach, Carmel, etc. – Small ethnic fishermen – Large factory production in canneries Postindustrial Tourist town – Military returns – Reconstructing historic Monterey – Shopkeeper, hippy, environmental No Growth folks – Suburban/urban Growth Machine

18 Five Communities Common characteristics – Geographical: place/space – Economic: people lived and worked – Commercial/industrial center for rural hinterland Changes – Modes of production – Industry – Political sovereignty

19 Modes of Production Distinguished by Base for Surplus Extraction and Extent of Surplus Extraction and Redistribution (Based on Wolf 1982, Chapter 3) Mode of Production Base of Surplus Extraction Extent of Suplus Extraction Extent of Surplus Redistribution KinshipFamilyLimitedModerate TributeMilitaryModerateLimited CapitalistEconomicTremendousSubstantial

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