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Mid-term Review GEOG 340: Day 14. Housekeeping Items The exam will be in class on Tuesday (you will have the whole class period) and will take the form.

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Presentation on theme: "Mid-term Review GEOG 340: Day 14. Housekeeping Items The exam will be in class on Tuesday (you will have the whole class period) and will take the form."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mid-term Review GEOG 340: Day 14

2 Housekeeping Items The exam will be in class on Tuesday (you will have the whole class period) and will take the form of short answers and essay questions. You will have a choice of questions. Review the text and the posted PowerPoint slides. Campus Food Movement is organizing a Glean Team orientation meeting on Friday 3-4 at Nanaimo Foodshare, 271 Pine Street (near Fitzwilliam).

3 Exam Review What kinds of factors shape neighbourhoods or cities over time – Harewood, Campbellton, Port Alberni, Nanaimo? Why do our cities look the way the way they do – in Nanaimo, in Abbotsford, in Mississauga, in Phoenix, in parts of California? What determines where people live and how has that changed over time? How does where we live affect our behaviour and our quality of life? What examples have we discussed? What groups manipulate the urban environment and for what purposes? Who benefits from these manipulations?

4 Exam Review What kinds of factors shape neighbourhoods or cities over time – Harewood, Campbellton, Port Alberni, Nanaimo? Why do our cities look the way the way they do – in Nanaimo, in Abbotsford, in Mississauga, in Phoenix, in parts of California? What determines where people live and how has that changed over time? How does where we live affect our behaviour and our quality of life? What examples have we discussed? What groups manipulate the urban environment and for what purposes? Who benefits from these manipulations?

5 Four Key Concepts Space-  Space both shapes and is shaped by patterns of urban development and behaviour. [examples?] Territoriality-  “the tendency for particular groups within society – ethnic groups, gangs, gated communities, -- to attempt to establish some form of control, dominance, or exclusivity within a given area.” [examples?]

6 Four Key Concepts (cont’d) Distance-  “influences patterns of social interaction and the shape and extent of social networks.” Relates to accessibility of goods and services to people. Place-  noting regularities of urban areas at a variety of scales as well as what gives them a distinctive ‘sense of place.’ E.g., the feel of a place can influence our sense of safety and whether it is economically attractive.

7 How are these concepts embodied in conflicts as with the Arbutus Corridor ?

8 To What Degree Are Socialized into What is to be Considered the ‘Normal’ City?

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10 Urban vs. Rural What differentiates urban from rural? Communities exist along a continuum. Rural vs. an ‘urban’ community of 1000 vs. a metropolis of 1-5 million. What role do size, density, and heterogeneity play in our experiences of cities? What role do class, race, gender, immigration, and housing status play in our experience of cities? Cities as physical phenomena and as a state of mind/ way of life. How have Anglo-American views of cities begun to change or not over the last few years?

11 19 th century German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies on Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society) GemeinschaftGesellschaft More homogenous Social relations related in family or tribe (less law, more custom/ peer pressure) People tend to know one another People more constrained by social norms Stronger sense of community/ solidarity Close-knit social relations More traditional worldviews Stronger emphasis on feelings Closer to nature More heterogenous, but tolerant Social relations mediated by marketplace or enforceable rules Relationships more impersonal/ exploitative More freedom & individualism Weaker sense of community, except amongst subcultures Stronger focus on rational self- interest More alienation/ loneliness More innovation/ non-conformism Removed from nature

12 Review for the Mid-Term When did cities emerge and where (name three of the major urban hearths)? What conditions needed to be in place for cities to emerge and thrive? What purposes did cities serve? What happened to cities in Europe after the collapse of the Roman empire and what gradually caused them to come back? What conditions fuelled the growth of industrial cities first in Europe?

13 Review for the Mid-Term Why did people pour into these industrial cities and what were the conditions like? In the North American context, what were the main phases of development? Five distinct phases: Frontier era (pre-independence) Mercantile era – further development of central places ( ) Expansion and realignment in response to early industrialization ( )

14 Review for the Mid-Term Full-blown industrial era ( ) Fordist mass production ( ) How did industrialization, changes in transportation technology, and immigration change cities in Canada and the U.S.? What new technological developments influenced urban form outside of transportation changes? What new classes were created by industrialization? What are – rank-size rule; – primate cities; Christaller’s central place theory?

15 Review for the Mid-Term How and why did zoning arise and what were its impacts on cities? How about the impact of the major renovations undertaken by the likes of Baron von Haussmann and Frederick Law Olmsted? And the emergence of monuments to civic pride? What was the impetus behind the public parks movement? What was “City Beautiful” and what eclipsed it?

16 Review for the Mid-Term If one divides the economy into four sectors – extractive or primary, manufacturing or secondary, services or tertiary, and knowledge-driven or quaternary – how does each influence the form and organization of the city?

17 Review for the Mid-Term What is the political economy approach to the study of cities? What are staples and how did they influence the evolution of What functions did early European settlements in Canada serve and why were they located where they were? What contributed to central Canada having an economic edge over the rest of Canada?

18 Review for the Mid-Term What are the three most important changes in Canadian settlement patterns and characteristics over the last seventy years? What is the best current example of megalopolis in Canada? Who were the Chicago School? How did the focus and sensibility of urban geography and sociology shift in the 1960s and early ‘70s? What were some of the trends that provoked this shift?

19 Review for the Mid-Term What is red-lining and block-busting? What was one of the consequences of the disillusionment with the status quo at a municipal level? What is the ‘creative class’ and what are the implications of its existence What forms can neighbourhood change take and what is gentrification? What are some interest examples of housing policy in Canada? What are examples of other Canadian urban policies?

20 Review for the Mid-Term In what ways did Robert Moses and Jane Jacobs represent opposite worldviews? The defining characteristics of modernism are:  mechanism (cities as machines and seeking to serve machines)  functionalism (eliminating ornamentation from buildings and creating single-use districts)  formalism (emphasis on superficial ‘order’ and geometry to the detriment of diversity and vitality  economism (economic objectives over other social and environmental objectives; private solutions over public)  could also add elitism (those who ‘know better’ will tell everyone else how to live)


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