2Learning Objectives Variation and change Why do changes spread? Post-vocalic [r]Vernacular formsWhy do changes spread?From group to groupFrom style to styleFrom word to wordHow do we study language change?Apparent time studiesReal time studies
3Learning Objectives Reasons for language change Social status and language changeGender and language variationInteraction and language variation
4Variation and change Language varies in three ways in physical space (regional variation)socially (social variation)over time (language change)
5Variation and change Language variation Language change Stable variationLanguage change in progressBell-shaped patternSteady increase or steady decline
6Post-vocalic [r] Example 3 Standard English has lost the pronunciation of [r] following vowels in words like star and start.It does not occur in RP nor in London Cockney dialect.The loss is still in progress, as there are areas such as south-west England where [r] is still pronounced.
7Spread of vernacular forms Example 4In Martha’s Vineyard, the people resented the fact that the island has been invaded by immigrants and tourists.They pronounced the words light and house like [ləit] and [həus], in which the vowel is more centralised.This pronunciation was associated with the area in the past.The fishermen used this to express solidarity.
8Exercise 3The high rise terminal (HRT) is a rising intonation pattern.It is a vernacular feature which is increasing in Sydney.SourcesSpread to Sydney from other areas of AustraliaSpread to Sydney from New Zealand
9How do changes spread? From group to group Figure 9.1 From style to styleFigure 9.2Exercise 4From word to wordExercise 5
10How do we study language change? Apparent-time studiesReal-time studiesThe linguist compares the speech of people from different age groups.The linguist follows the same group of people and documents their change over an extensive period (e.g years).
11How do we study language change? Apparent-time studies of language changeComparing the speech of people from different age groupsDifferences between the speech of older people and younger people are interpreted as indications of changes in progress, e.g. an increase in the use of prestigious forms indicate language change.
12How do we study language change? Apparent-time studies of language changeThe problem is with the vernacular forms, as young people use more vernacular forms anyway. Therefore the use of vernacular forms by young people might be simply stable variation.Researchers need to ensure that teenagers will continue to use the vernacular form even when they reach adulthood.
13How do we study language change? Real time studies of language changeResearchers look at language changes in the same place over a long period of time (20-30 years)Trudgill’s Norwich studyHe compared the data in1968 and 1983, and found that the vowels of beer and bear had completely merged.
14Reasons for language change Social status and language changeMembers of the group with most social status tend to introduce changes into a speech community from neighbouring communities which have greater status and prestige.Lower-class speakers are more influential in spreading less conscious linguistic changes.
15Reasons for language change Gender and language changeWomen lead changes towards both prestige and vernacular forms.e.g. Women in Ucieda, Spain led changes towards the standard form to show their social aspirations.
16Reasons for language change e.g. Women in Clonard, Belfast introduce vernacular forms from Ballymacarrett, because the both Clonard and Ballymacarrett are working-class communities, and Ballymacarett is more prestigious.Also, women in Clonard have a close- knit multiplex network. They are employed in poor city stores in shopping areas. They develop work and leisure patterns that resemble those of male groups.
17Reasons for language change Gender and language changeMen lead changes towards vernacular forms only.e.g. Men in Martha’s Vineyard led a change to a more vernacular form to show their loyalty to an older set of values.e.g. Upper-working-class men in Norwich are leading a sound change away from RP towards vernacular forms to show the solidarity of working men.
18Reasons for language change Interaction and language changeLinguistic changes progress most slowly in tightly knit communities which have little contact with the outside world.e.g. Gaelic in ScotlandMaori in the far north of New ZealandIceland
19Reasons for language change Interaction and language changeMedia expose people to new form in speech, but face-to-face interaction is crucial for linguistic changeExample 10
20Test Date: 9 December 2014 (Tuesday) Time: 11:30-13:30 Range: Holmes Chapters 1-9HandoutsRemark: 40%, no re-take
21Types of questionsTheory-based questionsApplication questions
22Theory-based questions In sociolinguistic surveys, there are two technical terms which are useful for describing social networks.The first one is ______________, which refers to whether members of a person’s network are in touch with each other. (2%)The second one is ______________, which is a measure of the range of different types of transaction people are involved in with different individuals in your social network. (2%)
23Application questions SpeakerAgeTo GodTo parentsTo friendsTo government officialsA63HuGB61C58GHuD52E37F2522
24Application questions In a speech community both Hungarian and German are in use. Study the data set, and comment in terms of:1. domain (4%)2. code-switching (4%)3. language shift (4%)