2OUTCOMES OF INTERFIRM VALUE CREATION 1. Competitive AdvantageTo survive and flourish in a competitive business world, each firm develops relationships with its counterparts; sharing resources and producing interdependency. This dependence results in cooperative relations and the gaining of competitive positions.Competitive advantage categories of cooperation are,investments in relation-specific assetssubstantial knowledge exchangecombining of complementary, but scarce resources or capabilities.Relationship-specific asset: assets whose value is greater within a given relationship than outside it. Ex: a supplier who makes investments in order to customize her product for the needs of a purchaser.
32. Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Interfirm relationships are developed to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty and to achieve competitive advantage. A customer-centric orientation needs to be created which is possible through interfirm value creating activities. Ex. Improvement of customer service by raising availability and reduced order cycle time (period between placing of one set of orders and the next). 3. Long-term Orientation and Growth In a strategic interfirm relationship, partners pursue strategic goals through ongoing long-term joint activities that lead to the building of long-term relationships. Credible and reliable behavior by partners increases the long-term orientation of an existing relationship. Joint efforts improve relationships and add value for both sides.
4BUYER –SELLER RELATIONSHIPS Relationships between buyers and sellers existed since humans began trading goods and services. Relationships developed in a natural way over time as the buyers and sellers developed trust that is supported by mutual benefits. These relationships have become "strategic" and the process of relationship development is accelerated as firms strive to create relationships to achieve their goals. In today’s environment of relationship acceleration, there is less time for the participants to carefully explore the range of long term relationship development. The expectations of performance have increased, making the development of a satisfactory relationship even more difficult.
5Ex. Choosing a sellerAn important phenomenon related to buyer-seller relationshipsis that many buyers are developing single or few source suppliers because of the pressure to,increase qualityreduce inventorydevelop more effective management systems (like just-in-time)decrease time to market, etc.The ultimate goal in developing such capabilities is to reduce costs.But not all suppliers are appropriate partners for the type to establish cooperative relationship with.Supplier fitness can be checked by,the value that the supplier adds to productionthe operating risk associated with using the supplier
6EVALUATING SUPPLIER’S PARTNER QUALITY value added to product by selleroperating risk associated with doing business with sellerhighlowA supplier firm that falls in the shaded quadrant,contributes high added value; making him important for competitivenessrepresents low risk as a partner; making him a candidate for relationship development
7BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT Stage 1: Pre-relationship stageSearch for potential partnersEvaluate and select potential partnersCross-check partners’ competencyMatch needs and capabilitiesStage 2: Early stageContact and establish rapport with partnersTest for compatibility with partnersDetermine mutual goals
8Stage 3: Development stage Joint planning of activities, responsibilities and relationshipsDevelop trustRegular contact and socializationTrial activitiesAdaptation and adjustment through agreement, negotiation and self controlStage 5: Final stageLong term rewards based on mutual behavior and trustTermination based on the extent of mutual interest and cost benefit analysis of continuing the relationship
9OTHER EXAMPLES OF RELATIONSHIPS In addition to complex and long term relationships between industrial buyers and sellers, many others exist which are equally important, but different in nature. Consumer Relationships Consumer's choice amongst a variety of brands is important. But, not only is each purchase influenced by the consumer's attitude to a number of brands (whether or not he has purchased each of them before) , but perhaps more importantly brand choice is also influenced by the consumer's relationship with the retailer. That relationship is constructed from the meanings which each party attaches to each other's actions - on one side,
10the store's sales person, its merchandising and its overall product assortment; or a company which has a portfolio of customers with whom it develops and manipulates a relationship, interacting by mail, telephone and perhaps less importantly through visits to the storeon the other the customer's purchase level and pattern and his payment performance etc.These all influence the customer making a brand choice and the store deciding what should be shown to any individual consumer.Assortment: a collection of various kinds, a variety.Mechandize: to promote the sale of, as by advertising or display.
11Business Relationships Manufacturer-Retailer Relationships A manufacturer's relationship with retail distributors is a function of the strength of the manufacturer's brand franchise but also of a whole series of factors to do with adaptation of offering terms and the particular things which are done for individual stores - in tailored product, enhanced delivery, price modification etc.Business RelationshipsMutually beneficial relationships including employees, investors and other stakeholders, result in confidence and trust that can carry an organization through the inevitable hard times.Brand franchise: arrangement between a brand name manufacturer and a wholesaler or retailer that gives the wholesaler or retailer the exclusive right to sell the brand manufacturer's product in a specific territory.Stakeholder: any individual or group which has an interest in and/oris affected by the goals, operations or activities of the organization or the behavior of its members.
12employer/employee - business partner Business relations are relations between stakeholders in the business process, such asemployer- employeeemployer/employee - business partneremployer/employee -outsourced employeerelations, etc.In developing a business relationship, after one establishes a relationship (by a phone call, personal contact, , etc.), has to properly maintain and deepen them.Mutually beneficial relationships including employees, investors and other stakeholders, result in confidence and trust that can carry an organization through the inevitable hard times.Franchise: i) the right to sell a company's goods or services in a particular area;ii) a business that is given such a right.
13Research shows that even with the best products and business practices, still strong relationships are needed to succeed in the marketplace, therefore the relationships must be carefully managed. Business relationship management is a formal approach to understanding, defining, and supporting a broad spectrum of inter-business activities related to providing and consuming knowledge and services via networks, with an emphasis on the emergence of online networks as a primary medium through which business relationships are conducted.
14SUMMING-UPA relationship provides functions for each actor (resource collection, innovation, productivity improvement etc.) and thus becomes part of the organizational structure.Each relationship eventually leads to new relationships withthird parties.A real relationship is already a “quasi-organization” in itself.The boundary of a firm is blurred as a result of its relationships with the outside world !Quasi: almost, resembling, seeming.
15RELATIONSHIPS IN INDUSTRIAL MARKETS Relationships between actors (people,organizations) in industrial markets define a structure in which,flows of tangibles (materials) andflows of intangibles (information, capabilities etc.)take place (a medium or space of flows).This is an exchange structure in which often lasting patterns of interaction emerge.Flows act as the intermediaries of value creation during the exchange, in fact they sustain the industrial market.A relationship that starts with initial contact and communicationdevelops into an interaction through exchange and adaptation.
16RELATIONSHIPS - INTERACTIONS mutual orientation- preparedness tointeract- mutual knowledge- respect for interestsinvestmentsdependencebondsexchange processes- product/service exchange- information exchange- social exchangeadaptation processes- products- production- routines
17interaction between three actors exchangeconnecting mechanisminteractiontransforming processinteraction between three actorsInteraction and value ceation in business relationships (eg. in networks)
18i. In exchange process, parties test how well they fit each other. ii. During interaction, new knowledge and new skills are learned.iii. In adaptation, misfits between parties are eliminated. Parties influence each other toward adaptation in several ways,technical adaptation (modifying products, production, ..)logistics adaptation (stock levels, common delivery, ..)financial adaptation (handling payments, ..)knowledge adaptation (technical cooperation, ..)
19STRUCTURES IN RELATIONSHIPS tieresourcelinkactivitybondactorcooperation results inlinks between activitiescooperation results in tiesbetween resourcescooperation results in bondsbetween actors
20LEVELS OF ANALYSIS interaction dyad portfolio net network single exchangeaggregate of interactionsbetween two actorsdyadsimilar relationships a firm has with other organizationsportfolioall the relationshipsof an actorneta whole structure of an industry or marketnetwork(Ritter and Gemünden, 2003)
21efficiency and flexibility presure DYADIt is the primary business relationship structure between pairsof three different types of subjects (activities, actors,resources), which represents a function for each of them.Dyad is formed when there is an opportunityto rationalizeto developto exercise influence/powerdyadefficiency and flexibility presurenetworkfirms
22DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURES single firmdyadaggregation of third partiesactivityinternal activitystructurelinkspatternactororganizationalbondsnetworksof actorsresourceinternal resourcecollectiontiesconstellation
23NETWORKS: INTERACTION APPROACH Interaction approach takes the relationships as its unit ofanalysis rather than the individual transaction.Involves simultaneous analysis of the attitudes and actions ofboth parties and emphasizes the essential similarity between the purchasing (buying) and marketing (selling) tasks in relationships.The coordination and mobilization of the company's portfolioof relationships and the mobilization of the resources of both companies through interaction in those relationships enhances a company's network position.Network position: description of a company's portfolio of relationships and the rights and obligations that go with it.
24ACTOR-RESOURCE-ACTIVITY MODEL actorsresourcesactivitiesHåkansson & Snehota (1995) have developed the model presented above for industrial networks in a practical dynamic direction; a dynamic entity that is built by actor bonds, activity links, and resource ties.With the help of these dimensions, the nature of a relationship developed between two actors can be characterised. Additionally, the dimensions can also be used to help illustrate those effects that the relationship has on the dyad itself; on both parties separately; and, lastly, on third parties.
25Thus, through utilisation of the dimensions, important and holistic information can be obtained concerning the effects of each relationship on the surrounding network.Actor bonds connect actors togetherActor bonds affect the way the actors experience each other and various situations.Actor bonds have an influence on what kinds of identities are formed for the various actors within the network.An identity that is formed affects every activity performed by the parties in the relationship, but also the activities performed change the identities of the parties in the relationship.
26However, identities are also affected by the images one party in the relationship has of the other. Some of these images are formed through joint, concrete activities, but some are only based on assumptions about the other party. This kind of identity forming can be used to examine the strength of the bonds between the actors. Similarly, the level of mutual commitment and trust between the parties can be used to this kind of examination of the strength of the bonds between the actors. This is because the bonds are created in a relationship where the parties show a certain amount of interest in each other and become mutually committed.
27ii. Activities are linked to each other There can be identified, e.g., technical, administrative, and commercial links between network activities.An essential element is that development of the activity links is affected by development of the overall relationship between the actors.Activity links can be seen as forming broader entities of activity chains, in which the activities carried out by a single actor are based on the activities that have been carried out by another actor.This idea is in line with the expanded idea of “value chain” as an inter-organisational value constellation, in which the interrelated activities of different organisational actors are looked as one entity.
28The notion of value constellation emphasizes the notion of end customer, thus a downstream movement along the overall value chain.iii. Resources are possessed by the actors and also shared and distributed by the actorsResources include different types of elements, such as various forms of technology, materials, and information.The role of the resource ties is to connect the resource elements possessed by two or more network actors.In addition to the activity links, also the resource ties are affected by the development of the relationship between the actors involved.Relationships are important business resources.
29RELATIONSHIP VARIABLES The development of close relationships is a function many essential processes.ExchangeIn a relationship, four main exchanges take place: product or service; money; information, and social. Exchange of these elements may become routinized over time which leads to the development of a clear set of roles or responsibilities that each partner is expected to carry out.i. Product/Service exchangeAs the exchange of a product/service provides the impetus for buyer-seller interaction, the characteristics of the product/service exchanged are likely to have a significant effect on the processes of interaction which develop between the two parties. Importance of the product/service to the buyer links it to his interaction goals.
30ii. Information exchange Strategies giving rise to the partnerships between industrial actors, such as joint product development and just-in-time systems, require extensive exchange of technical and commercial information.The complexity of the product/service being purchased has profound effects on the amount of information exchange which is required and the length of time over which this occurs For instance,the exchange of technical specifications for a standard productwould not necessarily yield intense ties between buyer and seller;yet the purchase of a complex product may require closecollaboration and exchange of information between buyer and seller over a period of months or even years.
31iii. Social exchange Social exchange refers to the interpersonal relationships which exist between members of organizations. Interpersonal contacts are critical in the establishment of close, long-term relationships between industrial actors. Social exchange facilitates problem solving and is particularly important in overcoming barriers to communication. The degree of social exchange reflects the decision maker's need to trust his counterpart. Personal relationships between members of the interacting firms build mutual trust which serves as a risk reduction mechanism. Following the exchanges between two firms and the resulting cooperation, adaptation take place which either firm may make in the elements exchanged or the process of exchange.
32CommitmentThe desire to continue the relationship and to work to ensure its continuance. Commitment implies importance of the relationship to the partners and a desire to continue the relationship into the future.CooperationSimilar or complementary coordinated actions taken by firms in interdependent relationships to achieve mutual outcomes or singular outcomes with expected reciprocation over time.Cooperation is a product of the exchange episodes that take place between partners. As representatives of organizations interact over time, agreement is reached as to the appropriate role and scope of both firms. The activities of both partners are "geared into each other with a maximum of effectiveness and efficiency”.
33Thus, cooperation refers to the extent that the work of buyer and seller is coordinated. Buyers and sellers who relate to one another in a cooperative mode intentionally seek common goals. Furthermore, it has been shown that members of buying and selling firms are often willing to engage in cooperative behavior in order to maintain a relationship which is viewed as being mutually beneficial. The interaction of cooperation and commitment results in cooperative behavior allowing the partnership to work ensuring that both parties receive the benefits of the relationship.
344. Adaptation Adaptation occurs when one party in a relationship alters its processes or the item exchanged to accommodate the other party. It refers to the extent to which the buyer and seller make substantial investments in the relationship. By virtue of having committed resources to the relationship, the party making the investment has adapted to the needs of his counterpart. Adaptations may be made by either partner with regard to basic business procedures, such as inventory management and the collection and dissemination of information, and/or product or process technology. One or both parties may even adapt their attitudes, values, and goals in order to further the exchange process or enhance the relationship.
35The adaptation process may be initiated by either party and adaptations may either be mutual or one-sided.Adaptations such as just-in-time purchasing and production, joint research and development processes, or training of the customer's workforce by the manufacturer may result in considerable gains in efficiency.5. Interdependence and Power Imbalance: The power of thebuyer or seller is closely tied to the interdependence of the partners in a relationship. Power imbalance is the ability of one partner to get the other partner to do something they would not normally do.Power imbalance leads to asymmetries in the relationship outcomes such as decision making, conflict resolution, information sharing or appropriation of the benefit. Such asymmetries can adversely affect trust.
36TrustA belief that one relationship partner will act in the bestinterests of the other partner. Trust is a fundamental relationship building factor. One party believes that its needs will be fulfilled in the future by actions taken by the other party.Mutual GoalsThe degree to which partners share goals that can only be accomplished through joint action and the maintenance of the relationship. Mutual goals provide a strong reason for relationship continuance; influence performance satisfaction which, in turn, influences the level of commitment to the relationship.8. Non-Retrievable InvestmentsThe relationship specific commitment of resources which a partner invests in the relationship. These non retrievable investments (capital improvements, training, and equipment) cannot be recovered if the relationship terminates.
3710. Bonds i. Structural Bonds: Structural bonds are forged when two parties make investments that can not be retrieved when the relationship breaks down, so the relationship is prevented from coming to an end. Structural bonds develop over time as the level of the investments, adaptations and shared technology grows until a point is reached when it may be very difficult to terminate a relationship. Firms with high levels of structural bonding have a higher level of commitment to the continuance of the relationship than firms with lower levels of structural bonding. Ex. A machine tool manufacturer providing training to the customers’ operators would inhibit the customer from switching to another supplier due to the cost and disruption caused by retraining.
38Ex. Company A has involved his customer B in product development projects with knowledge and expertese exchange. As a result, resources are shared and activities are jointly performed. B would prefer to remain as the customer of A, since joint knowledge and improved production processes reduce operating costs. The bond is so deep because it offers a value added that the customer can’t give up.Structural bonds represent the strategy to built up long-term relationships.Transaction: i) a business deal (an occurrence in which goods, services, or money are passed from one person, account, etc., to another), ii) the act or process of doing business with another person, company, etc.
39ii. Social Bonds: The degree to which individuals are integrated into group or society through social interaction. Individuals may develop strong personal relationships which tend to hold a relationship together. Buyers and sellers who have a strong personal relationship are more committed to maintaining the relationship. Social bonding is found in positive interpersonal relationships between buyer and seller. They may be easier to break than structural bonds as buyers can find it difficult to justify an inferior decision based on friendship. It is important that suppliers understand the value that different types of bonds bring to customers.
40COOPERATION and COLLABORATION Cooperation is the process of working or acting together; joint operation or action of autonomous organizations.It is a form of behavior and refers to the practice of individuals and groups working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition.ii. Collaboration is working with each other to do a task or a project. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, (this is more than the intersection of common goals seen in cooperative ventures, but a deep, collective, determination to reach an identical objective).
41COOPERATIVE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS OF INTERFIRM RELATIONS i. In competitive interactions the relevant goals of both parties cannot be simultaneously satisfied.A relationship where there are mutual and positive bonds between the parties is seen as cooperative, whereas a competitive relationship is characterized by an absence of bonds or negative mutual bonds.Non cooperation is usually regarded as opportunism and conflict.Interfirm competition comprises the behaviors and sentiments which are directed towards impeding trading partners from reaching their goals while facilitating reaching one’s own goals.It is often argued that cooperation and competition coexist in relations.
42Firms manufacturing the same product may be cooperative with regard to expanding the total market but competitive with regard to the share of it each attains.Within a buyer-seller relationship parties may cooperate to achieve reliable quality, delivery, and acceptable price but compete for the most favourable payment terms. Parties may continue to compete for more advantageous financial terms within the context of an otherwise cooperative relationship.ii. All activity undertaken jointly or in collaboration with others which is directed towards common interests or achieving rewards is covered by the definition of cooperation.Cooperation contains, sentiments, behavior and expectations of future behavior.
43In buyer-seller relationships cooperative behavior includes the coordination of tasks which are undertaken jointly and singly to pursue common and/or compatible goals and activities undertaken to develop and maintain the relationship.Cooperative expectations arise between firms as a result of cooperative behavior and sentiments and also support and sustain that behavior.Firms specializing in different production and marketing activities participate in a complex form of cooperative behavior where different and complementary actions are executed simultaneously and with reference to each other. In part this is possible as a result of the operation of common understandings about the way business is conducted. These system norms (behavior that contribute to maintenance of a system) facilitate interactions occurring in social systems. A considerable portion of commercial behavior is organized through such norms.
44Cooperation is also facilitated by relationship norms (that maintain a relationship). In relationships cooperation can be part of the norms, e.g. through time the division of tasks and the way in which these will be performed are embedded into the relationship.Cooperative expectations include the attitudes, perceptions and sentiments (including concern for the other party’s well-being, trust, and personal bonds arising among the people involved. Alternatively cooperative behavior can be overt (open) where a person or firm may direct the actions of another as a means of organizing a joint action; or people or firms may jointly organize their activities to achieve a given end.
45STRUCTURES OF COOPERATION: EXTREME CASES market transactionintegrated companyalternative types of cooperationsno cooperation / collaborationcomplete cooperation / collaborationMarket transaction: customer placing the order - suppliersupplying the goods – customer reimbursing the supplier for the goods received (customer is free to seek another supplier).Integrated company: coordination takes place within the same organization creating a hierarchy.The market mechanism (price) is supposed to take care of resource allocation, but there are other relational needs and problems that require the fitting of internal activities with those of external counterparts like “suppliers and customers”. They are much “thicker” then depicted by market models.
46Therefore;the market mechanism (price) is supposed to take care ofresource allocation, but there are other relational needs andproblems that require the fitting of internal activities with those ofexternal counterparts like “suppliers and customers”. They aremuch “thicker” then depicted by market models.
47RELATIONSHIP PORTFOLIO A firm can manage the connections between its relationships interms of the relationship portfolios. These portfolios are a partof firm’s strategic resources and comprises all the relationshipswith other organizations the firm is involved in.Portfolios include exchange and other type of relationships withactual and potentialsupplierscustomersdistributorsother org.s like government agencies, competitors and complementors
48Portfolio Management: Balancing the benefits and costs of exploitation vs. exploration Exploitation: refinement and extension of existing competencies, technologies and paradigms (returns are positive, proximate and predictable)Exploitation, ie. developing close, cooperative long lasting relationships helps firms to adapt their products, operations and services to meet each other’s needs better.
49Exploration: experimentation with new alternatives (returns are uncertain, distant and often negative).Exploration, ie. developing new relationships withcustomers, suppliers and other types of org.s provide newrelationships that become important sources of learning anddevelopment that challenge old routines and patterns ofthinking.The appropriate balance of exploitation vs. explorationdepends on the nature of environment and the benefits oflearning and knowledge development.Exploration is more advantageous in dynamic environments,like the computer industry.
50ALLIANCES Organizations have been placing greater priority on managing external environment by building stronger relationships withcustomers and suppliers. These relationships however, do notalways reach the level of organizational partnerships.Recently, org.s have moved beyond customer/supplierrelationships to establish alliances with their competitors.These inter-firm alliances often take the form of formalpartnerships, ranging from joint product development to R&Dcollaboration.Strategic alliances are voluntary agreements involving sharing,co-development ofproductstechnologiesservices
51CAUSES OF ALLIANCES Motivating factors 1. Pressure to access know-how and promote new knowledgeand learningit is increasingly difficult for a single firm to developinternally all the capabilities needed for innovationit is not always feasible to obtain knowledge via marketbecause required knowledge is specific to the applicationknowledge can have tacit (implicit) or dense components thatneed to be transmitted via interactionAs the required knowledge base becomes more complex, thelocus of innovation shifts from individual firm to networks ofalliances where firms use their;Tacit: Difficult to express in words, understood without being openly expressed, conveyed by implication.
52absorptive capacity (ability to identify, process and utilize knowledgeability to develop and manage collaborations to create andapply new knowledgeCoping with greater competition, crowding and speedgreater R&D competition leads to speedy innovation andnew product development, collaborations can stimulate therate of innovationcompetition impels firms to partnering with other org.s tocreate new entrepreneurial startups, or motivate organizationalalliancesObtaining complementary capabilitiesFirms enter alliances to share resources, gain experience anddevelop their capabilities
53Managing uncertainty risk firms reduce uncertainty and share risk in joint venturesfirms manage technology and knowledge uncertainitiesmore effectively in alliancesImproving flexibility and complex adaptationsocial relations/networks facilitate exchange and alliancedevelopmentnetworks allow better adaption to the changing environmentby absorbing shocks and short term pressuresfirms in networks pool resources, pursue longer-termstrategies, help out partners when needed and and diffusevaluable information
54Facilitating factorsOrganizational position and reputationan organization’s reputation is closely related to its alliancesalliances with technically distant competitors extend a firm’sknowledge base into new areas, which enhances itsreputational position in technical space2. Trustalliances require high levels of trust3. Communication TechnologiesICT provides new advantages for alliance formation4. Government and regulatory contextnational environment for competition and cooperation isimproved by regulatory reforms and support mechanisms
55US ALLIANCE CAPITALISM : FLAGSHIP-LED CLUSTERS Flagship firms (IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, or NEC (a Japanese IT company), have the reputation and market presence to attract a number of cooperative partnerships between suppliers, customers, government and even other competitors.The Flagship firm, because of its market position, coordinates many of the network functions of its partners (but not the daily operations) since the flagship becomes the R&D center, the marketing outlet, the key customer/supplier, and application developer for smaller network partners.
56The flagship firm’s resources and global perspective enable it to develop global strategies that can capitalize on thecapabilities and knowledge of all partners.The flagship-led systems of industrial collaboration led by theflagship firm includekey supplierskey customersselected competitorsnon-business infrastructure (NBI)
58KEIRETSU (JAPAN)Keiretsu refers to a uniquely Japanese form of corporate organization. A keiretsu is a grouping, or family of affiliated companies that form a tight-knit alliance to work toward each other's mutual success. The keiretsu system is also based on an intimate partnership between government and businesses.It can best be understood as the intricate web of relationships that links banks, manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors with the Japanese government.Keiretsu operate globally. They are organized around their own trading companies and banks. Each major keiretsu is capable of controlling nearly every step of the economic chain in a variety of industrial, resource and service sectors.
591. Horizontal keiretsu are headed by major Japanese banks and include the "Big Six" - Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Sanwa, and Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank Groups.Vertical keiretsu are industrial groups connecting manufacturers and part suppliers or manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers; lead by a major manufacturer.These verticle keiretsu include car and electronics producers (Toyota, Nissan, Honda--Matsushita, Hitachi, Toshiba, Sony)) and their "captive" subcontractors.Distribution keiretsu, a subgroup of vertical keiretsu, control much of Japanese retailing, determining what products will appear in stores and showrooms -- and at what price.
60Affiliates and subsidiaries HORIZONTAL KEIRETSUHighly diversified function.A “trinity” or core:A bank at the core.A trading company.A manufacturer.Cluster of affiliates and subsidiaries:From related and unrelated industries and services.Major manufacturers.Large service providers like life insurance companies.10-15% equity ownership.BankTradingCompanyManufacturerAffiliates and subsidiaries
61Consist primarily of supplier and distributor relationships. VERTICAL KEIRETSUCentered around a major manufacturer that is not part of an horizontal keiretsu.Consist primarily of supplier and distributor relationships.Mainly automobiles and electronics.Service the large manufacturer at the core of the keiretsu.SuppliersManufacturerWholesalerRetailers
62Governance Profile (Toyota vs. GM and Ford) arms-length (independent) suppliers25%arm’s-length suppliers35%percent of total component costspartner suppliers *10%partner suppliers +48%internally manufactured55%internally manufactured27%* two or fewer suppliers for a product category+ Kankei kaishaGeneral Motors and FordToyota
63KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN TOYOTA GROUP supplierassociationToyotaconsultation teams(on-site assistance)Jishuken activities(supplier teams)knowledge exchange with all Toyota suppliers - Toyota policies - applicable best examples (costs, quality, safety, management)qualityworkshopsproductionsystemlogisticson-site know-how sharing with small groups of suppliers- selecting a different area each year for improvement- visiting each supplier’s plant for improvement