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4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Chapter 2 Challenges for Managers

2 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Outcomes  Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the global economy  Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related attitudes  Describe the challenges and positive influences diversity brings to today’s business environment 2

3 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Outcomes  Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the organization  Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers  Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s workforce 3

4 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Four Challenges 4 Globalization Diversity Ethics Technology

5 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the global economy Learning Outcome 5

6 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Changing Business Perspectives  International activity - Conducting business across national borders  Globalization - Suggests that the world is free from national boundaries and is borderless  Multinational organizations - Organizations that did business in several countries  Transnational organization: Organization in which the global viewpoint supersedes national issues 6

7 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Global Market Place  Opening of Chinese market  Guanxi: Practice of building networks for social exchange  Creation of the European Union  Establishment of NAFTA 7

8 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Understanding Cultural Differences  Organizations must appreciate the differences among cultures  Microcultural differences are key to understand the global work environment  Changing careers  Expatriate manager: Manager who works in a country other than her or his home country  International executives - Executives whose jobs have international scope 8

9 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Differences 9 SOURCE: Reprinted with permission of Academy of Management, P.O. Box 3020, Briarcliff Manor, NY Cultural Constraints in Management Theories. G. Hofstede, Academy of Management Executive 7 (1993). Reproduced by permission of the publisher via Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.

10 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related attitudes Learning Outcome 10

11 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cultural Differences and Work- Related Attitudes  Individualism  Cultural orientation in which people belong to loose social frameworks and their primary concern is for themselves and their families  Collectivism  Cultural orientation in which individuals belong to tightly knit social frameworks and depend strongly on extended families or clans 11

12 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cultural Differences and Work- Related Attitudes  Power distance  Degree to which a culture accepts unequal distribution of power  Uncertainty avoidance  Degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguity and uncertainty 12

13 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cultural Differences and Work- Related Attitudes  Masculinity versus femininity  Masculinity: Cultural orientation in which assertiveness and materialism are valued  Femininity: Cultural orientation in which relationships and concern for others are valued  Time orientation: Identifies, whether a culture’s values are oriented toward the future or toward the past and present 13

14 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity  Cultural sensitivity training  Cross-cultural task forces/teams  Global view of human resource functions  Planning  Recruitment and Selection  Compensation  Training and Development 14

15 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe the challenges and positive influences diversity brings to today’s business environment Learning Outcome 15

16 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diversity  All forms of individual differences, including:  Culture  Gender and age  Ability  Religion  Personality  Social status  Sexual orientation 16

17 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ethnic Diversity  Challenge  Harness the wealth of differences provided by cultural diversity  Risk  Prejudices and stereotypes may prevent managers and employees from developing synergies to benefit the organization 17

18 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Gender Diversity  Women’s share of authority and compensation is not increasing commensurately with their:  Education  Participation in the workforce  Glass ceiling: Transparent barrier that keeps women from rising above a certain level in organizations 18

19 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Age Diversity  Has a positive impact on profitability  Aging workforce is increasing intergenerational contact at work  Cooperating generations  Silent generation  Baby boomers  Baby bust generation  Millennial 19

20 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ability Diversity  Individuals with disabilities are an underutilized human resource  Disabilities Act of 1992  Employers are required to make reasonable accommodations to permit workers with disabilities to perform jobs 20

21 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Valuing Diversity  Managers must combat prejudice and discrimination to manage diversity  Ways in which diversity helps  People work best when they are valued and when diversity is taken into account  When people feel valued, they build relationships and work as a team  Managing diversity helps companies become more competitive 21

22 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Table The Benefits and Problems of Diversity 22

23 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the organization Learning Outcome 23

24 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ethical Theories Emphasizes the consequences or results of behavior Consequential theory Emphasizes the character of the act rather than its effects Rule-based theory Emphasizes the character, personal virtues, and intent of the individual Character theory 24

25 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers Learning Outcome 25

26 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Employee Rights Issue Technology and privacy HIV/AIDS Confidentiality 26

27 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Sexual Harassment = Unwanted Sexual Attention  Unwelcome verbal or physical sexual attention  Affects an employee’s job conditions  Creates a hostile working environment  Gender harassment - Crude comments or behaviors that convey hostility toward a particular gender  Unwanted sexual attention - Unwanted touching or repeated pressure for dates  Sexual coercion - Demands for sexual favors through job-related threats or promises 27

28 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Organizational Justice Distributive justice Fairness of the outcomes that individuals receive in an organization Procedural justice Fairness of the process by which the outcomes are allocated in an organization 28

29 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Individual and Organizational Responsibility  Whistle-blower: Employee who informs authorities of the wrongdoings of her or his company or coworkers  Social responsibility: Organizational obligation to behave ethically in social environment  Protecting the environment  Promoting worker safety  Supporting social issues  Investing in the community 29

30 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Codes of Ethics  Avenues for ethics  Corporate culture  Individual codes of ethics  Professional oaths  Organizational credos 30

31 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure The Four Way Test 31

32 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s workforce Learning Outcome 32

33 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Technological Innovation  Technology: Intellectual and mechanical processes that transform inputs into products or services that meet organizational goals  Internet  Online retailing and surveillance  Expert system: Computer-based application that uses a representation of human expertise in a specialized field of knowledge to solve problems  Robotics: Use of robots in organizations 33

34 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Alternative Work Arrangements  Telecommuting: Electronically transmitting work from a home computer to the office  Advantages - Cost reduction and increased efficiency  Satellite offices - Network of smaller workplaces located near employees’ homes  Virtual offices - People work anytime, anywhere, and with anyone 34

35 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Alternative Work Arrangements 35 Advantages for Employees Gain flexibility Save the commute to work Enjoy the comforts of home Disadvantages for Employees Have distractions Lack socialization opportunities Lack interaction with supervisors Identify less with the organization

36 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Technological Change Requires Managers To:  Develop technical competence to gain workers’ respect  Focus on helping workers manage the stress of their work  Take advantage of the wealth of information available to motivate, coach, and counsel 36

37 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Help Employees Adjust by:  Involving them in decision making regarding technological change  Selecting technology that increases workers’ skill requirements  Providing effective training  Encouraging reinvention  Reinvention: Creative application of new technology 37

38 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lost in Translation  While watching this sequence, pretend you have arrived in Tokyo, and you are experiencing what you are seeing. Do you understand everything you see?  Is Charlotte bewildered by her experiences? Is she experiencing some culture shock?  What aspects of Japanese culture appear in this sequence? What do you see as important values of Japanese culture? Review the Chapter 2 section, "Cultural Differences," to gain some insights about these questions. 38

39 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Theo Chocolate  What practices at Theo Chocolate illustrate the concept of social responsibility?  What does Vice President Debra Music mean when she says that Theo is a “triple bottom line” company? What happens if Theo’s social objectives conflict with the organization’s economic objectives?  What does fair trade mean to the leaders at Theo, and how does this relate to workers’ rights and organizational justice? 39


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