2History of CommunitySince the late nineteenth century, ‘the use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages’ (Elias 1974, quoted by Hoggett 1997: 5).
3Origin of CommunityThe origin of the word community comes from the Latin munus, which means the gift, and cum, which means together, among each other.Community literally means to give among each other.Community could be defined as a group of people who share gifts which they provide to all.
4Community can be defined using different patterns. A community can be large or small; local, national, international; real or virtual; cooperative or competitive; formal or informal.
5Community is a Sociological Construct Not only is the concept of a community a "construct" (model), it is a "sociological construct."It is a set of interactions, human behaviours that have meaning and expectations between its members.Not just action, but actions based on shared expectations, values, beliefs and meanings between individuals.
6Boundaries A small village has simple boundaries. Interaction is between residents.Interaction outside the communities.Other village shopsMarriage and dating from other villagesSportsWhen an identified community is a little village, separated by a few kilometres from other villages, in a rural area, its boundaries appear at first to be very simple. That pattern of human interaction may be seen as consisting only of relations between the residents living inside that location, inside that village.That pattern of human interaction may be seen as consisting only of relations between the residents living inside that location, inside that village.But its residents interact also with people outside the village. They marry persons from near and far, and may move or bring a spouse in to live with them. At any one time, those village residents may have sisters, brothers, cousins, parents and extended relatives living elsewhere. The boundary of that community is not so precise.
8Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft A community bound together in a tightly knit pattern which is socially homogeneous and based on a clear-cut piece of territory.Gemeinschaft is a world dominated by face-to-face contacts, where each person is aware of his or her status, each is attached to a particular place, and the community is well regulated.It is said to be a feature of villages and small towns, and contrasts with gesellschaft society, said to be a feature of an urban, industrialized populace.Both concepts are idealized; in real life there are ingredients of both, in varying proportions, in all societies.For example, within many cities there are neighbourhoods which operate as urban villages.
10Today's Jewish community is concentrated in the St Today's Jewish community is concentrated in the St. Kilda district, home of the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation, the oldest and largest synagogue in the city. The original kehilla that was formed in 1841 moved into this large, stately building in 1930, and the dome-topped, Victorian structure has been in use ever since. Other synagogues in Melbourne include Temple Beth Israel, a Liberal synagogue that seats more than 2,000 people; the St. Kilda Hebrew Congregation, which is more in the old-world style; and the Kew synagogue, the newest and most modern looking temple.The Jewish museum of Australia displays Judaica, ritual objects, Holocaust material, and paintings and sculptures by Jewish authors. The nearby Kadimah Cultural Center shows Jewish and Yiddish drama, and has a large library of Judaica. There are also kosher restaurants and grocery stores throughout the St. Kilda area.
11The history of the Jews in Australia dates back to 1788, when a number of Jews were among the convicts brought to the country aboard the First Fleet to establish the first European settlement on the continent, on the site of present-day Sydney. Today, an estimated 120,000 Jews live in Australia. The majority are Ashkenazi Jews many of them refugees and Holocaust survivors who arrived during and after World War II. There is also a significant Sephardic Jewish population.
12* The meaning and history of the concept of community including the theory of Ferdinand Tonnies
13What is a community? Can be difficult to define Has traditionally been used to describe groups of people who:Live in the same geographical areaAre connected with an institution e.g. a church or a schoolBelong to the same cultural or language group e.g. Vietnamese AustraliansHave similar occupations e.g. nursesShare similar experiences e.g. refugees and asylum seekersHave ideas or values in common e.g. environmental social movementsHave a similar interest e.g. gym membersShare a lifestyle e.g. people are same sex attractedShare a government e.g. the city of Monash
14When the term community is used in connection with any of these practices and activities it is generally intended to suggest that the people in the group have something in common
154 key characteristics of a community include Live in the same areaAre interdependent in terms of workShare social interactionsShare a sense of belonging to that group
16Types of communitiesGeographic communities – local neighbourhood, suburb, shire, town or city (sometimes called communities of location) – large group living in close proximityCultural communities – local club, sub-culture, ethnic group, religious, or multicultural group (e.g. Indigenous and Greek-Australian groups)Interest based communities – people who share a common identity other than location and who often interact regularly (eg a sporting club or a land care environmental group)
17Types of communitiesIntentional communities – formed with the purpose of providing social and/or practical support for a group (e.g. a retirement village or nursing home, young mothers group)Internet communities – groups of people who may have never met but share some interest or connection via the internet (e.g. second life, blogs, facebook and political/non government organisations)
18Ref pg 96How might the definition of community have changed over time?
19Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1850Transformed society economically moving from an agrarian farming economy to a manufacturing economyTechnologically from manual to mechanical labourSocially from rural to urban life, changing control over labour processes and gender relations
20FERDINAND TONNIES German sociologist Studied how life in the new cities differed from life in rural villagesIntroduced 2 contrasts that reflected the contrast between very different social experiences
21GEMEINSHAFT (community) Used to describe a social group in which people are closely tied by kinship (family) and traditionGESELLSCHAFT ‘society’The informal and impersonal relationships that occur within cities
22GEMEINSCHAFTIn traditional villages the intimate ties of Gemeinschaft connected peopleConnections based on blood (kinship)Mind (sense of being a unique group) and landSeen as being culturally homogenous as shaped by the moral laws of the church and family
23Admiration for the way that Gemeinschaft groups maintain social cohesion and a concern about the loss of these forms of community
24Examples of Gemeinschaft Rural farming communitiesExtended familiesReligious communities
25GesellschaftTonnies concerned that society over time would comprise Gesellschaft groupsWorried that people would be ‘essentially separated in spite of uniting factors’Characterises a group of people who come together by choice usually for very specific practical reasons
26Instead of being guided by traditional norms – people follow their own selfish interests They adopt a ‘contracual’ attitude becoming more deliberate, rational and calculating in their social interactions (eg connecting for work opportunities rather than emotional well – being)
27Tonnies noted that as social and geographic mobility increased the close ties of Gemeinschaft were replaced by social relationshipsWhich were impersonal, superficial and fleeting
29GEMEINSCHAFT (COMMUNITY) GESELLSCHAFT (SOCIETY)Bonds among people are intimate and personalBased on strong social ties, tradition and personal relationshipsDescriptive of rural lifePeople know each other, share interests oriented toward collective communityShared identityFamily ties are strong which provides unityBonds are practical and impersonalAssociation of people with social ties, considerable social diversity and impersonal relationshipsDescriptive of urban lifePeople largely motivated by self interest which can result in disunityFew common values or shared identitiesTradition and custom are no longer binding forces. Individuals choose to participate
30Below slides are a cartoon play on the difference between Geselschaft and Gemeinschaft
33Although technically we still have Gemeinschaft communities Gemeinschaft could be regarded as traditional (earlier) communities and Gesellschaft to modern (later) communitiesM comes before S in the alphabet
34Emile Durkheim Agreed with Tonnies theory about community and society Durkheim believed that cities do not lack social bondsOutlined 2 different forms of community – they either reflected the ‘mechanical solidarity’ of traditional society or ‘organic solidarity’ present within modern societies.
35Mechanical solidarity Durkheim believed that pre-industrial societies were united by mechanical solidarity or shared moral beliefsMembers of traditional communities viewed each-other as being similar in terms of work, values and social connections
36Similar to Tonnies Gemeinschaft community Durkheim suggested that the unity generated within traditional community comes from having the shared culture and maintaining regular face to face contact
37Organic solidarityMore optimistic than Tonnies about the shift in community types as a result of urbanisationDurkheim outlined a new type of social connection called ‘organic solidarity’Involved social bonds based on specialisation (division of labour and interdependence)
38Concept similar to Gesellschaft groups but has key differences Both sociologists felt that the expansion of industrial cities had the potential to undermine traditionFor Durkheim urban society offered more personal choice, tolerance and privacy than was found in traditional communities
39Durkheim's theory of social change warned about the potential for increasing organic solidarity and its associated individualism to cause a reduction in the involvement of communal activities instead of combining their efforts, individuals might allow selfish interests and competitiveness to divide them
40This could lead to social disorder And ‘anomie’ a society without normsPeople could become increasingly isolated and dissatisfiedDurkheim saw anomie as the cause of the rising rate of suicide, crime and social disorder in urban society at the time
41Listen to ..Florence and the machines never let me go – how might Durkheim explain this song??Use key terms to explain…And “I wish I was a punk rocker…” song
42What would Durkheim say? “And it's peaceful in the deep, Either way, you cannot breathe, No need to pray, no need to speak Now I am under.”Though the pressure's hard to take, It's the only way I can escape, It seems a heavy choice to make, Now I am under. And it's breaking over me, A thousand miles down to the sea bed, Found the place to rest my head.
43Create a venn diagramTo explain the similarities and differences between Tonnies and Durkheim
44Community over time ref pg 100 Using the pictures - add your own drawings and write the features of traditional communities and the features of modern communities..\Documents\Sociology\sociology 3&4\Unit 3\AOS 3- Community\COMMUNITIES OVER TIME.docx
45Common features of traditional and modern communities include Sense of belongingIdentitySecuritySocial interaction and participation
46Factors contributing to shift from traditional to modern community Travel and advances in technology and communicationsFeminismWorkUrbanisationEducational opportunitiesMulticulturalismIndustrialisation
48Castell’s theory of network society and its connection to modern forms of community Contemporary theory‘network society’Explores how use of ICT in industrialised cities has improved social networks and connections between people
49Castells’ theoryStates that online connections supplement and enrich ‘offline’ connectionsBelieved those who are active within their ‘real world’ communities use the internet to maintain and expand their range of social activities and friendships
50Some social researchers are concerned about the breakdown of community and family life as isolated and alienated ‘netizens’ (cyber citizens) become addicted to online interaction
51BUT Castell argues that pessimistic views are based on insufficient empirical evidence and nostalgia for the intimate communities of a past that never existedHis research found that the Internet has the potential to provide a much broader range of social contacts and opportunities for discussion compared to face to face connections
52Further research into whether relationships that are exclusively formed and experienced online were considered meaningful and lasting Found that many online communities were fleeting groups containing “variable geometry and changing composition”
53Online interactions were seen as resulting in weak social ties rather than creating long lasting relationships
54Another concern relates to negative social behaviours Eg networks of paedophiles, racist groups and internet fraudsters can be formed Castell reported that the vast majority of online community members do not engage in these offensive behaviours
552 main forms of ICT communities Virtual communitiesSocial network created through use of information technologySecond life (people create avatars or alternative reflections of themselves)(Rheingold’s theory)Online communitiesCollection of people who communicate onlineSeek social support, company and informationMake connections based on shared interest and values
56SUMMARY OF CASTELL’s theory Manual Castells – ‘network society’Explores how the use of ICT in industrialised cities has improved social networks and connections between peopleHe argues that the Internet has helped to reinforce and intensify existing social patterns rather than threaten community
57Rheingold Empowering potential of internet New community online allows people to make connections based on shared interests and valuesOnline communities are a natural response to the human need for social contact which has been eroded due to the loss of traditional communities
58RheingoldArgues online communities have been created as “an alternative reality in a world gone wrong”While Castell supports Rheingold’s empowerment model, he notes that the impact of the internet on social interaction has been less dramatic than originally predicted
59Castell – the same problems occurring in real life (exclusion, conflict and racism) are also present in online communitiesAccess to ICT remains restricted to those with enough economic, educational and social resources to participate in these forms of community
60FACEBOOK Desire for popularity rather than genuine friendships? LIST THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VIRTUAL AND ONLINE COMMUNITIES pg. 104
61CLASS DISCUSSION What internet communities do you know of? What is considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviour within internet communitiesHow have these social rules been established?What are the consequences of the rules are broken?
62Complete Activity 4.03Research newspaper articles and representations on online and virtual communitiesIn your opinion are online communities genuine forms of community? Justify your answer with specific examples and theoryRead pg 105 and answer questions 1-5 on pg 106
63Experience of community Sense of communityInvolves a feeling that members belong, are connected to each other and believe that their needs will be met through their participation in the group
64Ways in which a sense of community can be built Participating in festivals celebrating the communityWorking towards a common goal or purpose (wining a sporting premiership or raising funds for charity)Promoting the community among its membersAttending social nights or organised activities
65Maintaining or Weakening? The rebuilding of Kinglake after the fires has simultaneously maintained and weakened a sense of communityChanges to clearway times has brought Stonnington Council traders together as a community to “fight” the State Government
66Sense of community can also be instilled in individuals by.. Family – determines which communities a person will interact with and how often this occursEthnic origin – provides a person with friendship links and cultural connections to communities while also exposing people to racism and prejudice that may make individuals stick with ‘people like us’Work – determines a persons status and power within a community
67Inclusion and Exclusion How community members made to feel part of the groupParticipation in community activities is often responsible for this connectionInvolves:Being made to feel welcome – sense of belongingGenerates a feeling of being part of somethingProvides individuals with security, identity, support and access to skills and information possessed by the communityHow people can be isolated from the communityCan be unintentional (not being able to join a swimming team if you cant swim) or intentional (neo Nazi movement excluding people who are not of an Anglo Saxon background)Causes individuals to feel isolated and alienated from a community (ies)Helps define a community by identifying who is not includedCan result in individuals feeling angry, resentful, frustrated and powerlessCan lead to conflict or violence between different community groups
68Relationship between inclusion and exclusion Concepts are interrelatedOften actions that make one person feel apart of a community can be the same factor that excludes someone elseNiklas Luhmann ( ) describes the interrelationship as being like “two sides of the same coin”
69EXAMPLE OF inclusion and exclusion A Greek social club has a strong sense of community because its members have their ethnicity in commonThis club is not deliberately seeking to exclude non Greek people but has unintentionally done so. If a non Greek person were to join, while it would eliminate the feeling of exclusion for that person, it would likely remove the strong sense of community the Greek members feel because the new member may not understand their culture and experiences in the same way
70How can a sense of community be weakened? Political factors – change in government policy, such as the closure of a school in a small country townEconomic factors – loss of financial support/funding (rural football and cricket clubs needing to merge instead of closing)Social factors – sexism, racism, ageism
71..\Documents\Sociology\sociology 3&4\Unit 4\AOS 3- Community\Exclude women at your own peril.docx Read pg 106 and answer questions 1-5Complete activity 4.04 pg 109
72Information and communications technology What is ICT?Networking (mobile phones towers, broadband, satellites)Hardware (computers, laptop, iphone)Software (web browsers, )The internetThe people who work with these technologies
73What are the positive and negative consequences for Australian communities as a result of the development of ICT..\Documents\Sociology\sociology 3&4\Unit 4\AOS 3- Community\Positive and negative consequences of ICT on community pg 110.docx complete Activity 4.05 pg 112 ** Find current articles on internet communities
74Effects of economic, social, political and environmental changes The impact of change from various institutions and the environment can range from a minor inconvenience to the complete destruction of a community
75When considering the impact of change it is important to be able to describe what the experience of community was like ‘before’ and ‘after’ the changeThe following categories of change have had a significant impact on the structure and experience of community over time
76Economic change Gain or loss of funding Decrease or increase in membership feesIncrease in rent, licensing fees or other costsNeed for sponsorship and fundraisingLoss of industry and unemployment
77Social change Changing social attitudes Changing gender roles Social trends and fashionsPopular opinionAttitudes of people inside and outside a community
78Political change Changing government policy Laws and legislation (eg anti-discrimination laws), government grantsCouncil bylaws and restrictions (eg building permitsRemoval of services
79Environmental changes Sustainability – ensuring there are adequate resources for future community groups to use (eg water for ovals, private and public space for sporting activities)Climate change (shifting weather patterns have had significant impact on many communities esp. rural communities who have been subjected to floods, draughts and fires.