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Kepemimpinan: Konsep Menumbuhkan dan Merubah Chapter 17 Mata kuliah: J0754 - Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial Dosen Pembuat: D3122 - Rudy Aryanto.

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Presentation on theme: "Kepemimpinan: Konsep Menumbuhkan dan Merubah Chapter 17 Mata kuliah: J0754 - Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial Dosen Pembuat: D3122 - Rudy Aryanto."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Kepemimpinan: Konsep Menumbuhkan dan Merubah Chapter 17 Mata kuliah: J Pengelolaan Organisasi Entrepreneurial Dosen Pembuat: D Rudy Aryanto Tahun : 2009

3 Learning Objectives –Define a prescriptive model of leadership –Describe the type of research needed to develop a clearer explanation of charismatic leadership –Discuss why transformational leadership is a difficult concept to use in developing a leadership training program –Compare internal and external causes of performance attribution –Identify situations and settings in which self-managed groups and self-leadership would be useful and effective

4 Leadership in Difficult Times After September 11, 2001, these types of leadership were very important –Economic management at the Federal level –Large companies taking steps to protect the environment and society –Businesses retaining employees, even in the face of financial losses

5 Leadership in General Leadership plays a role in attaining performance goals –Some leaders are better at performance enhancement than others Efficient leaders provide coordination and control –Bringing people together –Charting a course –Providing encouragement and recognition

6 Leadership in General Options in a changing world –Self-managed groups –Self-leadership –Situational approaches –Transformational leaders –Contingency leadership –No leadership at all There is no one universally accepted model or approach

7 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Helps determine which leadership styles to use in various situations –No single leadership style works in all situations –Main focus should be the problem to be solved and the situation in which it occurs –The leadership style used in one situation should not constrain styles used in others –Social processes influence participation by subordinates in problem solving

8 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model This model is used to evaluate the effects of participation on… –Decision quality –Decision acceptance –Subordinate development –Time

9 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Decision effectiveness is based on –Decision quality (technical aspects) –Decision commitment (acceptance) –Decision time penalty D Eff = D Qual + D Comm – DTP

10 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Overall effectiveness –Equals decision effectiveness minus costs and development –Can have positive or negative effects on human capital –Positive effects influence by leader’s ability to facilitate teamwork O Eff = D Eff – Cost + Development

11 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Situational variables –Information and expertise of subordinates –Time constraints –Geographical restrictions on interactions

12 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Continuous scales Yes-No judgments Four attributes deal with importance –Quality, commitment, time, development Six attributes are probability estimates –Leader information, problem structure, commitment probability, goal congruence, conflict, subordinate information

13 Time-Driven Decision Tree

14 Limitations of Vroom-Jago Model Limitations and criticisms –‘Yes’ or ‘no’ responses don’t accommodate complexity of many work situations –Too complex –Doesn’t address modern-day managerial challenges, such as change, technological advancement, international competition

15 Attribution Theory of Leadership The leader is an information processor –Searches for informational clues as to why something is happening –Constructs causal explanations that guide leadership behavior Follower behavior  Leader attributions  Leader behavior

16 Leader Attributions Categorize cause of behavior –Person –Entity –Context Considerations when forming behavior attributions –Distinctiveness –Consistency –Consensus

17 Leader Attributions Leaders who make attributions of internal causes –Use more punitive behaviors When a problem is serious –Leaders make more internal attributions –And respond more harshly

18 Attribution Leadership Model Informational Cues Distinctiveness, consistency, consensus Perceived Source of Responsibility Observation of poor production quality - Rejects - Excess scrap - Returned product - Excessive production costs Causal attribution of poor quality Internal Causes: - Low effort - Low commitment - Lack of ability External Causes: - Improper equipment - Unfair deadlines - Illness of production team members Leader behavior in response to attributes - Reprimand - Transfer - Demotion - Redesign job - Personal concern - Training Link #1 Link #2

19 Leader Behavior: Cause or Effect? Reciprocal Causation –Follower behavior impacts leader behavior and visa versa Research suggests –Leader consideration behavior causes subordinate satisfaction, and –Follower performance causes changes in leader’s emphasis on consideration and the structuring of behavior-performance relationships

20 Charismatic Leadership The ability to influence others based on a supernatural gift and attractive power –Followers enjoy being with charismatic leaders because they feel inspired, correct, important Charismatic leaders –John F. Kennedy –Mikhail Gorbechev –Walt Disney –Sam Walton

21 Stages in Charismatic Leadership Stage One –Detecting unexploited opportunities and deficiencies in the present situation –Sensitivity to constituents’ needs –Formulating an idealized strategic vision Stage Two –Communicating the vision –Articulating status quo as unacceptable; the vision as the best alternative –Articulating motivation to lead followers

22 Stages in Charismatic Leadership Stage Three –Building trust through technical expertise, personal risk-taking, self-sacrifice, unconventional behavior Stage Four –Demonstrating the means to achieve the vision through role modeling, empowerment, unconventional tactics

23 Two Types of Charismatic Leaders Visionary leaders –Focus on the long term –Link followers’ needs and goals to the long-term goals of the organization Crisis-based leaders –Focus on the short term –Have an impact when existing knowledge, resources, and procedures are not adequate –Communicate what actions need to be taken and what the consequences will be

24 Transactional Leadership The transactional leader –Helps followers identify what must be done to accomplish the desired results –Takes into consideration the followers’ self-concept and esteem needs –Relies on contingent reward and on management by exception

25 Transactional Leadership L: Recognizes what F must do to attain designated outcomes L: Recognizes what F must do to attain designated outcomes L: Recognizes what F needs L: Recognizes what F needs L: Clarifies F’s Role F: Feels confidence in meeting role requirements (subjective probability of success) F: Feels confidence in meeting role requirements (subjective probability of success) F: Develops motivation to attain desired outcomes (expected effort) F: Develops motivation to attain desired outcomes (expected effort) L = Leader F = Follower F: Recognizes value of designated outcomes (need-fulfilling value for F) F: Recognizes value of designated outcomes (need-fulfilling value for F) L: Clarifies how F’s need fulfillment will be exchanged for enacting role to attain designated outcomes L: Clarifies how F’s need fulfillment will be exchanged for enacting role to attain designated outcomes

26 Transformational Leadership Motivates followers to work for… –Transcendental goals, not short-term self-interests –Achievement and self-actualization, not security To achieve the vision, transformational leaders make major changes in the firm’s… –Mission –Way of doing business –Human resource management

27 Transformational Leadership Bass identified five factors that describe transformational leaders –Charisma –Individual attention –Intellectual stimulation –Contingent reward –Management by exception

28 Substitutes for Leadership Follower Initiative Structured Tasks Workgroup Cohesiveness

29 Relationship-Oriented Leadership Neutralizers Subordinate characteristics –Need for independence –“Professional” orientation –Indifference toward organizational goals Organizational characteristics –Close-knit, cohesive work groups –Rewards not within leader’s control –Spatial distance between superior & subordinates Tasks that are intrinsically satisfying

30 Task-Oriented Leadership Neutralizers Subordinate characteristics –Ability, experience, training, knowledge –Need for independence –“Professional” orientation –Indifference toward organizational goals Task characteristics –Unambiguous and routine –Methodologically invariant –Provides own feedback concerning accomplishment

31 Task-Oriented Leadership Neutralizers Organizational characteristics –Formalization –Inflexibility –Highly specified and active advisory and staff functions –Close-knit, cohesive work groups –Rewards not within the leader’s control –Spatial distance between superior and subordinates


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