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Juvenile Justice Chapter 6 Serious, Chronic and Violent Offenders.

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1 Juvenile Justice Chapter 6 Serious, Chronic and Violent Offenders

2 Definitions Serious Juvenile Offender Serious Juvenile Offender Has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Serious Child Delinquent Serious Child Delinquent Is between the ages of 7 and 12 and has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Is between the ages of 7 and 12 and has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Chronic Juvenile Offender Chronic Juvenile Offender Has a record of 5 or more separate charges of delinquency, regardless of offense Has a record of 5 or more separate charges of delinquency, regardless of offense Violent Juvenile Offender Violent Juvenile Offender Conviction of UCR Part I Violent Offense against person Conviction of UCR Part I Violent Offense against person Has prior adjudication of violent offense Has prior adjudication of violent offense OR Conviction of murder OR Conviction of murder

3 Chronic Juvenile Offenders Chronic offending has two elements: Chronic offending has two elements: Frequency of offending Frequency of offending Length of time over which offending persists Length of time over which offending persists Proportions of Chronic Offenders Proportions of Chronic Offenders Varies from study to study Varies from study to study Amount of crime varies by ethnicity: Amount of crime varies by ethnicity: non-white offenders account for majority of serious delinquency non-white offenders account for majority of serious delinquency Higher in Males Higher in Males First-time Offenders First-time Offenders Onset of criminal behaviors at age 10 or below tend to have more serious violent offending in adolescence and early adult Onset of criminal behaviors at age 10 or below tend to have more serious violent offending in adolescence and early adult Another study set age at 12 years or younger 2-3 times more likely to become serious violent offenders Another study set age at 12 years or younger 2-3 times more likely to become serious violent offenders

4 Chronic Juvenile Offenders Risk Factors for Recidivism Risk Factors for Recidivism Males with low socio-economic status Males with low socio-economic status History of Juvenile offenses at younger ages History of Juvenile offenses at younger ages Physically or sexual abuse Physically or sexual abuse Raised in single-parent households Raised in single-parent households Significant Family problems Significant Family problems Delinquent peers Delinquent peers History of Special Education classes History of Special Education classes Strongest Predictors, include age of first commitment, contact with law enforcement & non-severe pathology Strongest Predictors, include age of first commitment, contact with law enforcement & non-severe pathology

5 Violent Juvenile Offenders Onset of Trajectories for Youth Violence Onset of Trajectories for Youth Violence Early, before puberty Early, before puberty Late, begins in adolescence Late, begins in adolescence Generally commits more crimes for longer period of time. Generally commits more crimes for longer period of time. Pattern of escalating violence through childhood, and sometimes through adulthood Pattern of escalating violence through childhood, and sometimes through adulthood 30-40% males & 15-30% females report having committed a serious offense by age % males & 15-30% females report having committed a serious offense by age 17

6 Violent Adolescent Females Girls generally enter JJS through Status Offenses Girls generally enter JJS through Status Offenses Violence in adolescent females often the result of a combination of substance abuse, victimization, economic conditions and dysfunctional family life Violence in adolescent females often the result of a combination of substance abuse, victimization, economic conditions and dysfunctional family life Females tend to perpetrate violence as a result of their own victimization Females tend to perpetrate violence as a result of their own victimization

7 Predictors of Youth Violence Exposure to Violence Exposure to Violence Early Aggressive behaviors Early Aggressive behaviors Early delinquency Early delinquency Animal Abuse Animal Abuse Children who are victims or witness violence Children who are victims or witness violence Social forces: prejudice, economic inequality, attitudes toward violence Social forces: prejudice, economic inequality, attitudes toward violence Ineffective Parenting: Lack of supervision Ineffective Parenting: Lack of supervision Accepting violence as normal Accepting violence as normal Violent Peers Violent Peers

8 Myths About Youth Violence Future Offenders can be identified in early childhood Future Offenders can be identified in early childhood Child abuse and neglect always leads to violent behavior later in life Child abuse and neglect always leads to violent behavior later in life African-American and Hispanic youth are more prone to violence than any other racial group African-American and Hispanic youth are more prone to violence than any other racial group Super-predators threaten the U.S. Super-predators threaten the U.S. Trying youth as adults reduces youth crime Trying youth as adults reduces youth crime Nothing works with preventing youth violence Nothing works with preventing youth violence Most violent youth will be arrested violent crimes Most violent youth will be arrested violent crimes

9 Antisocial Personality Disorders APA DSM IV TR definition: APA DSM IV TR definition: Over 18 years old who show evidence of conduct disorder before age 15. See pg. 174 Over 18 years old who show evidence of conduct disorder before age 15. See pg. 174 Conduct Disorder Conduct Disorder Prolonged antisocial behavior that can range from truancy to fistfights Prolonged antisocial behavior that can range from truancy to fistfights Difficulty following rules Difficulty following rules Viewed as mentally ill Viewed as mentally ill Aggression to people and animals Aggression to people and animals Destruction of property Destruction of property Lying and stealing Lying and stealing Serious violations of rules Serious violations of rules

10 Guns and Juveniles More than 4,000 youth die of gun violence every year More than 4,000 youth die of gun violence every year Teenager more likely to die as a result of gunshot wounds Teenager more likely to die as a result of gunshot wounds Boys who own guns for protection are more likely to be involved with juvenile delinquency than boys who own guns for sport or do not own guns Boys who own guns for protection are more likely to be involved with juvenile delinquency than boys who own guns for sport or do not own guns

11 Decline in Juvenile Arrests for Violent Index Crime 1994 or 1995, depending on the study showed that violent crime among youth peaked during these periods at approximately 800,000 Violent Index Crimes 1994 or 1995, depending on the study showed that violent crime among youth peaked during these periods at approximately 800,000 Violent Index Crimes By 2000, Violent Index Crime had significantly decreased to about 98,900 By 2000, Violent Index Crime had significantly decreased to about 98,900 Decline in violence was attributed to: Decline in violence was attributed to: Strong economy, Strong economy, changing demographics, changing demographics, changes in the market for illegal drugs and use of firearms, changes in the market for illegal drugs and use of firearms, expanded imprisonment, expanded imprisonment, policing innovations and policing innovations and growing tolerance for violent behavior growing tolerance for violent behavior

12 School Crime and Violence School violence is decreasing School violence is decreasing Youth carrying guns to school decrease from 12% to 6% Youth carrying guns to school decrease from 12% to 6% Bullying has two key components, repeated harmful acts and imbalance of power Bullying has two key components, repeated harmful acts and imbalance of power 1.6 million youth in grades 6-10 are bullied at least once weekly 1.6 million youth in grades 6-10 are bullied at least once weekly Physical: Physical: Verbal: Verbal: Psychological Psychological Sexual Sexual

13 School Crime and Violence School shootings School shootings 2/3 of 37 attackers felt bullied in school 2/3 of 37 attackers felt bullied in school Shooters usually gave subtle clues before attack Shooters usually gave subtle clues before attack 75% of the 37 shooters disclosed their plans to classmates prior to shooting 75% of the 37 shooters disclosed their plans to classmates prior to shooting Myths about shooters Myths about shooters School violence is an epidemic School violence is an epidemic All shooters are alike All shooters are alike School shooter is a loner School shooter is a loner Shootings are exclusively revenge motivated Shootings are exclusively revenge motivated Easy access to weapons is most significant risk factor Easy access to weapons is most significant risk factor Unusual or aberrant behaviors, interests or hobbies are hallmarks of students destined to become shooters Unusual or aberrant behaviors, interests or hobbies are hallmarks of students destined to become shooters

14 Gang Violence Street gangs acquire their power in the community through violent behaviors Street gangs acquire their power in the community through violent behaviors The 2000 National Youth Gang Survey reported 24,500 gangs with about 772,500 members active in 3,330 jurisdictions The 2000 National Youth Gang Survey reported 24,500 gangs with about 772,500 members active in 3,330 jurisdictions Number of gangs have been decreasing, except for female gangs Number of gangs have been decreasing, except for female gangs Definitions: Ongoing group of people that have a common name or identifying sign or symbol, form of alliance for a purpose to engage in illegal activity Definitions: Ongoing group of people that have a common name or identifying sign or symbol, form of alliance for a purpose to engage in illegal activity

15 Gang Violence Street gangs engage in criminal activity either individually or as a group Street gangs engage in criminal activity either individually or as a group Youth gang is a sub-set of a gang Youth gang is a sub-set of a gang Commit a full range of street crimes ranging from property to violent crimes Commit a full range of street crimes ranging from property to violent crimes Reasons for gang membership include Reasons for gang membership include Need for security, Need for security, Love, friendship Love, friendship Acceptance food Acceptance food Shelter. Discipline Shelter. Discipline Belonging status Belonging status Respect Respect Identification Identification Power Power Money Money

16 Gang Violence  Scavenger gangs  No common bond beyond impulsive behavior  Leadership changes frequently  Prey on weak inner city  Crimes tend to petty, senseless and spontaneously  Organized/Corporate Gangs  Strong leaders or managers  Discipline akin to fortune 500 Corporations  Crimes tend to highly organized; racketeering, drug trafficking

17 Gang Violence Hedonistic gangs Hedonistic gangs Focus on having a good time Focus on having a good time Instrumental gang Instrumental gang Focus on making money, property crimes, uses violence for material gain Focus on making money, property crimes, uses violence for material gain Predatory Gang Predatory Gang Commits more violent crimes against persons including robberies and muggings. Commits more violent crimes against persons including robberies and muggings. Likely to use crack-cocaine Likely to use crack-cocaine Gang Recruitment Gang Recruitment Ceremony: jumping in, turning or courting Ceremony: jumping in, turning or courting Gang Organizational Chart; Page 199 Gang Organizational Chart; Page 199

18 Gang Violence Myths About Gangs Myths About Gangs Myth: Majority of street gang members are juveniles Myth: Majority of street gang members are juveniles Fact: Most juvenile gang members make-up for a small minority of membership. Fact: Most juvenile gang members make-up for a small minority of membership. Myth: ALL street gangs are turf oriented Myth: ALL street gangs are turf oriented Fact: Only some claim specific territory, while others operate in multiple locations. Fact: Only some claim specific territory, while others operate in multiple locations. Myth: Gang weapons usually consist of chains, knives and tire irons. Myth: Gang weapons usually consist of chains, knives and tire irons. Fact: Uzis, AK47’s and semiautomatic weapons are the weapons of choice for most gang members Fact: Uzis, AK47’s and semiautomatic weapons are the weapons of choice for most gang members Myth: ALL gang have one leader and are tightly knit Myth: ALL gang have one leader and are tightly knit Fact: Most gangs are loosely knit groups and likely to have several leaders Fact: Most gangs are loosely knit groups and likely to have several leaders Myth: One way to cure gang membership is to by locking them up. Myth: One way to cure gang membership is to by locking them up. Fact: Incarceration and rehabilitation of hard-core gang members has not proven to be effective. Prisons seem to be higher-learning for on going gang related crimes. Fact: Incarceration and rehabilitation of hard-core gang members has not proven to be effective. Prisons seem to be higher-learning for on going gang related crimes. Myth: Gangs are a law enforcement problem. Myth: Gangs are a law enforcement problem. Fact: Gangs are a problem for everyone Fact: Gangs are a problem for everyone

19 Public Health Model & the Juvenile Justice Perspective Juvenile violence is seen as a public health issue Juvenile violence is seen as a public health issue The Contagion Metaphor of the Public Health model sees violence as a disease that spreads rapidly in hot-spots. Youths are victims of social forces and therefore should be treated The Contagion Metaphor of the Public Health model sees violence as a disease that spreads rapidly in hot-spots. Youths are victims of social forces and therefore should be treated The Juvenile Justice Model sees violence as the result of the youth’s free choice and should be punished like a criminal The Juvenile Justice Model sees violence as the result of the youth’s free choice and should be punished like a criminal


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