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Chapter 6 Serious, Chronic and Violent Offenders

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1 Chapter 6 Serious, Chronic and Violent Offenders
Juvenile Justice Chapter 6 Serious, Chronic and Violent Offenders

2 Definitions Serious Juvenile Offender Serious Child Delinquent
Has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Serious Child Delinquent Is between the ages of 7 and 12 and has one or more UCR Part I Offense conviction(s) Chronic Juvenile Offender Has a record of 5 or more separate charges of delinquency, regardless of offense Violent Juvenile Offender Conviction of UCR Part I Violent Offense against person Has prior adjudication of violent offense OR Conviction of murder

3 Chronic Juvenile Offenders
Chronic offending has two elements: Frequency of offending Length of time over which offending persists Proportions of Chronic Offenders Varies from study to study Amount of crime varies by ethnicity: non-white offenders account for majority of serious delinquency Higher in Males First-time Offenders Onset of criminal behaviors at age 10 or below tend to have more serious violent offending in adolescence and early adult Another study set age at 12 years or younger 2-3 times more likely to become serious violent offenders

4 Chronic Juvenile Offenders
Risk Factors for Recidivism Males with low socio-economic status History of Juvenile offenses at younger ages Physically or sexual abuse Raised in single-parent households Significant Family problems Delinquent peers History of Special Education classes Strongest Predictors, include age of first commitment, contact with law enforcement & non-severe pathology

5 Violent Juvenile Offenders
Onset of Trajectories for Youth Violence Early, before puberty Late, begins in adolescence Generally commits more crimes for longer period of time. Pattern of escalating violence through childhood, and sometimes through adulthood 30-40% males & 15-30% females report having committed a serious offense by age 17

6 Violent Adolescent Females
Girls generally enter JJS through Status Offenses Violence in adolescent females often the result of a combination of substance abuse, victimization, economic conditions and dysfunctional family life Females tend to perpetrate violence as a result of their own victimization

7 Predictors of Youth Violence
Exposure to Violence Early Aggressive behaviors Early delinquency Animal Abuse Children who are victims or witness violence Social forces: prejudice, economic inequality, attitudes toward violence Ineffective Parenting: Lack of supervision Accepting violence as normal Violent Peers

8 Myths About Youth Violence
Future Offenders can be identified in early childhood Child abuse and neglect always leads to violent behavior later in life African-American and Hispanic youth are more prone to violence than any other racial group Super-predators threaten the U.S. Trying youth as adults reduces youth crime Nothing works with preventing youth violence Most violent youth will be arrested violent crimes

9 Antisocial Personality Disorders
APA DSM IV TR definition: Over 18 years old who show evidence of conduct disorder before age 15. See pg. 174 Conduct Disorder Prolonged antisocial behavior that can range from truancy to fistfights Difficulty following rules Viewed as mentally ill Aggression to people and animals Destruction of property Lying and stealing Serious violations of rules

10 Guns and Juveniles More than 4,000 youth die of gun violence every year Teenager more likely to die as a result of gunshot wounds Boys who own guns for protection are more likely to be involved with juvenile delinquency than boys who own guns for sport or do not own guns

11 Decline in Juvenile Arrests for Violent Index Crime
1994 or 1995, depending on the study showed that violent crime among youth peaked during these periods at approximately 800,000 Violent Index Crimes By 2000, Violent Index Crime had significantly decreased to about 98,900 Decline in violence was attributed to: Strong economy, changing demographics, changes in the market for illegal drugs and use of firearms, expanded imprisonment, policing innovations and growing tolerance for violent behavior

12 School Crime and Violence
School violence is decreasing Youth carrying guns to school decrease from 12% to 6% Bullying has two key components, repeated harmful acts and imbalance of power 1.6 million youth in grades 6-10 are bullied at least once weekly Physical: Verbal: Psychological Sexual

13 School Crime and Violence
School shootings 2/3 of 37 attackers felt bullied in school Shooters usually gave subtle clues before attack 75% of the 37 shooters disclosed their plans to classmates prior to shooting Myths about shooters School violence is an epidemic All shooters are alike School shooter is a loner Shootings are exclusively revenge motivated Easy access to weapons is most significant risk factor Unusual or aberrant behaviors, interests or hobbies are hallmarks of students destined to become shooters

14 Gang Violence Street gangs acquire their power in the community through violent behaviors The 2000 National Youth Gang Survey reported 24,500 gangs with about 772,500 members active in 3,330 jurisdictions Number of gangs have been decreasing, except for female gangs Definitions: Ongoing group of people that have a common name or identifying sign or symbol, form of alliance for a purpose to engage in illegal activity

15 Gang Violence Street gangs engage in criminal activity either individually or as a group Youth gang is a sub-set of a gang Commit a full range of street crimes ranging from property to violent crimes Reasons for gang membership include Need for security, Love, friendship Acceptance food Shelter. Discipline Belonging status Respect Identification Power Money

16 Gang Violence Scavenger gangs Organized/Corporate Gangs
No common bond beyond impulsive behavior Leadership changes frequently Prey on weak inner city Crimes tend to petty, senseless and spontaneously Organized/Corporate Gangs Strong leaders or managers Discipline akin to fortune 500 Corporations Crimes tend to highly organized; racketeering, drug trafficking

17 Gang Violence Hedonistic gangs Instrumental gang Predatory Gang
Focus on having a good time Instrumental gang Focus on making money, property crimes, uses violence for material gain Predatory Gang Commits more violent crimes against persons including robberies and muggings. Likely to use crack-cocaine Gang Recruitment Ceremony: jumping in, turning or courting Gang Organizational Chart; Page 199

18 Gang Violence Myths About Gangs
Myth: Majority of street gang members are juveniles Fact: Most juvenile gang members make-up for a small minority of membership. Myth: ALL street gangs are turf oriented Fact: Only some claim specific territory, while others operate in multiple locations. Myth: Gang weapons usually consist of chains, knives and tire irons. Fact: Uzis, AK47’s and semiautomatic weapons are the weapons of choice for most gang members Myth: ALL gang have one leader and are tightly knit Fact: Most gangs are loosely knit groups and likely to have several leaders Myth: One way to cure gang membership is to by locking them up. Fact: Incarceration and rehabilitation of hard-core gang members has not proven to be effective. Prisons seem to be higher-learning for on going gang related crimes. Myth: Gangs are a law enforcement problem. Fact: Gangs are a problem for everyone

19 Public Health Model & the Juvenile Justice Perspective
Juvenile violence is seen as a public health issue The Contagion Metaphor of the Public Health model sees violence as a disease that spreads rapidly in hot-spots. Youths are victims of social forces and therefore should be treated The Juvenile Justice Model sees violence as the result of the youth’s free choice and should be punished like a criminal

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