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Cell Division and Genetics – Mechanisms for a Knit of Identity and Thread of Distinction.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Division and Genetics – Mechanisms for a Knit of Identity and Thread of Distinction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Division and Genetics – Mechanisms for a Knit of Identity and Thread of Distinction

2 DNA and Its Faithful Replication – The Knit of Identity Because DNA stores genetic information and is faithfully replicated, information is passed largely unaltered from cell-to-cell, generation-to- generation.

3 Proteins and Their Production – The Primary Reason for DNA

4 Cell Division Demands Coordination of DNA Replication, Mitosis and Cytokinesis What’s so important about cell division?

5 Cell division requires coordinated division of chromosomes (mitosis) ….. …… and division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis).

6 DNA Replication – Simple in Principle, Complicated in Practice

7 DNA is Packaged into Chromosomes DNA in the cell is virtually always associated with proteins. The packaging is impressive – 2 meters of human DNA fit into a sphere about meters in diameter. chromatin duplicated chromosome

8 The Link Between DNA Replication and Chromosome Duplication

9 DNA is Condensed into Visible Chromosomes Only For Brief Periods in the Life of a Cell 95% of the time, chromosomes are like this. Easily visible chromosomes are apparent perhaps 5% of the time in an actively growing cell and less in a non-growing cell.

10 A Karyotype is an Arranged Picture of Chromosomes At Their Most Condensed State A normal human karyotype Boy or girl? Note that almost all chromosomes come in homologous pairs.

11 From Birth to Rebirth, a Cell Progresses Through Characteristic Stages That Constitute the Cell Cycle In multicellular organisms like us, progress through the cell cycle is carefully regulated.

12 Cancer Is One Outcome of A Runaway Cell Cycle Licentious division - prostate cancer cells during division.

13 The Knit of Identity - Mitosis Precisely and Evenly Divides Duplicated Chromosomes Precisely dividing the duplicated chromosomes has the consequence of providing each new cell with an identical and complete set of genetic instructions. interphase prophase metaphase

14 Mitosis Precisely and Evenly Divides Duplicated Chromosomes Cytokinesis is the process of cell division and it is distinct and separable from mitosis.

15 Mitosis in Action Blue shows DNA, green shows spindle fibers.

16 In Animal Cells, a Cleavage Furrow Forms and Separates Daughter Cells Cleave furrow in a dividing frog cell.

17 The Plant Cell Wall Forces Cytokinesis to Play by Different Rules


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