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Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Emile Durkheim Personal Information Personal Information Social Environment Social Environment Basic Concerns Basic Concerns.

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Presentation on theme: "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Emile Durkheim Personal Information Personal Information Social Environment Social Environment Basic Concerns Basic Concerns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emile Durkheim ( )

2 Emile Durkheim Personal Information Personal Information Social Environment Social Environment Basic Concerns Basic Concerns Intellectual Influences Intellectual Influences Ideas Ideas Research Research Contribution to Sociology. Contribution to Sociology.

3 Personal Information Born April 1858 Born April 1858 Jewish section of Epinal, France Jewish section of Epinal, France Family not wealthy but respected Family not wealthy but respected Close-knit family Close-knit family Taught secondary school Taught secondary school

4 Personal Information 1887 first faculty appointment 1887 first faculty appointment Introduced Sociology course Introduced Sociology course Chair of the Dept. of Social Sciences (University of Bordeaux) Chair of the Dept. of Social Sciences (University of Bordeaux) Married, 2 children (Son, Andre died in WWI) Married, 2 children (Son, Andre died in WWI) Durkheim died at age 59 Durkheim died at age 59

5 Social Environment Rapid industrialization Rapid industrialization Cities full of factory workers Cities full of factory workers Conflict between workers & employees Conflict between workers & employees Example: Paris Commune (1871) Example: Paris Commune (1871) Workers seized Paris Workers seized Paris Established egalitarian republic Established egalitarian republic French government destroyed commune French government destroyed commune Killed 20,000 working-class people. Killed 20,000 working-class people.

6 Pere Lachaise Cemetery Wall carved by Paul Albert Barthalomé in 1899

7

8 Social Environment History of Political Instability History of Political Instability Monarchy of Louis XVI Monarchy of Louis XVI French Revolution (1789) French Revolution (1789) Dictatorship of Napoleon I ( ) Dictatorship of Napoleon I ( ) Restoration of Bourbon monarchy Restoration of Bourbon monarchy Bourbons overthrown (1830). Bourbons overthrown (1830).

9 Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

10 Napoleon I

11 Napoleon III

12 Social Environment History of Political Instability (cont.) History of Political Instability (cont.) Monarchy of Louis Philippe Monarchy of Louis Philippe Revolution ended monarchy (1848) Revolution ended monarchy (1848) 2 nd Republic (didn’t last long) 2 nd Republic (didn’t last long) Emperor Napoleon III ( ) Emperor Napoleon III ( ) Nephew of Napoleon I Nephew of Napoleon I Deposed after defeat in Franco-Prussian War. Deposed after defeat in Franco-Prussian War.

13 Louis Philippe

14 Social Environment Durkheim lived in 3 rd Republic Durkheim lived in 3 rd Republic Felt that people had lost moral unity Felt that people had lost moral unity Still remnants of previous governments Still remnants of previous governments People who supported: People who supported: Democracy Democracy Monarchy Monarchy Socialism. Socialism.

15 Basic Concerns 1) Instability 1) Instability Economic Economic Political Political 2) Violence 2) Violence Workers & employers Workers & employers Between nations Between nations Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism 3) Decadence 3) Decadence Self-centered Self-centered No sense of community. No sense of community.

16 Sociology the Solution Purpose of Sociology=Explain how to make modern society work. Purpose of Sociology=Explain how to make modern society work. Develop positivist laws Develop positivist laws Solve problems Solve problems Address moral crises Address moral crises Create stability. Create stability.

17 Intellectual Influences Kant Kant Morality without divine connection Morality without divine connection Motivated by sense of duty Motivated by sense of duty Saint-Simon Saint-Simon Sociology develop moral laws Sociology develop moral laws Similarity of moral ideas hold society together Similarity of moral ideas hold society together Comte Comte Emphasis on social stability & change. Emphasis on social stability & change.

18 Intellectual Influences Spencer Spencer Social evolution Social evolution Increasing size Increasing size Increasing complexity Increasing complexity Differentiation Differentiation Integration. Integration.

19 Intellectual Influences Wundt Wundt German psychologist German psychologist Model for creating new discipline Model for creating new discipline Just created experimental psychology Just created experimental psychology Jewish training Jewish training Morally integrated society Morally integrated society Substituted “society” for “God” as origin of moral action. Substituted “society” for “God” as origin of moral action.

20 Ideas Social Solidarity Social Solidarity Dynamic Density Dynamic Density Social Facts Social Facts Collective Consciousness Collective Consciousness Collective Representations Collective Representations Social Currents Social Currents Society as a distinct social reality Society as a distinct social reality Individual as Dualistic. Individual as Dualistic.

21 Social Solidarity 1) Mechanical Solidarity 1) Mechanical Solidarity More primitive societies More primitive societies Minimal division of labor Minimal division of labor Few occupations Few occupations Similarity bound people together. Similarity bound people together.

22 Social Solidarity 2) Organic Solidarity 2) Organic Solidarity More advanced societies (industrial) More advanced societies (industrial) Specialization Specialization Individuality Individuality Increased division of labor (more occupations) Increased division of labor (more occupations) Individuals must rely on others Individuals must rely on others Division of labor creates solidarity. Division of labor creates solidarity.

23 Dynamic Density The number of people in society The number of people in society The amount of interaction between them The amount of interaction between them A social fact A social fact Used to study society & social solidarity. Used to study society & social solidarity.

24 Social Facts “Ways of acting, thinking, & feeling, external to the individual & endowed with the power of coercion, by reason of which they control him.” “Ways of acting, thinking, & feeling, external to the individual & endowed with the power of coercion, by reason of which they control him.” Independent of any single individual Independent of any single individual Can only be explained by other social facts. Can only be explained by other social facts.

25 Social Fact “A social fact is identifiable through the power of external coercion which it exerts or is capable of exerting upon individuals” (Durkheim, [1895] 1982, p. 56).

26 Social Facts-3 General Types 1. Material facts 1. Material facts Social structures Social structures Economy, family, social class Economy, family, social class Morphological Facts Morphological Facts Population size, density, geographical location. Population size, density, geographical location.

27 Social Facts (cont.) 2. Nonmaterial facts (Communication links) 2. Nonmaterial facts (Communication links) Norms Norms Values Values Collective representations Collective representations Collective consciousness. Collective consciousness.

28 Social Facts (cont.) 3. Social currents 3. Social currents Not as clearly formed Not as clearly formed Examples: Examples: Enthusiasm in crowds Enthusiasm in crowds Indignation in crowds Indignation in crowds Depression in particular social groups. Depression in particular social groups.

29 Collective Consciousness The totality of beliefs & sentiments common to the average member of society The totality of beliefs & sentiments common to the average member of society Preexists & survives individuals. Preexists & survives individuals.

30 Collective Consciousness (cont.) Experienced as an external force which shapes behavior. Experienced as an external force which shapes behavior. Varies from society to society based on the division of labor. Varies from society to society based on the division of labor.

31 Collective Consciousness 4 dimensions 1. Volume=number of people involved. 1. Volume=number of people involved. 2. Intensity=how deeply the people feel about the belief. 2. Intensity=how deeply the people feel about the belief. 3. Rigidity=clarity of the definition. 3. Rigidity=clarity of the definition. 4. Content=form collective consciousness takes. 4. Content=form collective consciousness takes.

32 Example of 4 Dimensions Marriage in Feudal Societies (Mechanical Societies) Volume=Most people involved Volume=Most people involved Intensity=Felt deeply about it Intensity=Felt deeply about it Rigidity=Clearly defined Rigidity=Clearly defined Content=Religious & economic. Content=Religious & economic.

33 Example of 4 Dimensions Marriage Today (Organic Society) Volume=Large # but smaller % of population Volume=Large # but smaller % of population Intensity=Feel less deeply Intensity=Feel less deeply Rigidity=Less clearly defined Rigidity=Less clearly defined Content=Personal choice. Content=Personal choice.

34 *** Collective Representations Specific states of collective consciousness Specific states of collective consciousness Norms, values, & beliefs of various groups (e.g., family, schools) Norms, values, & beliefs of various groups (e.g., family, schools) Not reducible to or dependent on the individual Not reducible to or dependent on the individual Form a collective consciousness. Form a collective consciousness.

35 Social Currents Different collective consciousness & representations produce different social currents. Different collective consciousness & representations produce different social currents. Not as clearly formed as representations Not as clearly formed as representations Examples: Examples: Enthusiasm or pity in crowds Enthusiasm or pity in crowds Depression & disillusionment in segments of society. Depression & disillusionment in segments of society.

36 Society & Social Reality Society as a distinct form of social reality. Society as a distinct form of social reality. Cannot be reduced to biology or psychology. Cannot be reduced to biology or psychology. Society is not the mere sum of its parts. Society is not the mere sum of its parts.

37 Individual as Dualistic Individual part Individual part Bioorganic Bioorganic Inborn Inborn Self-centered. Self-centered.

38 Individual as Dualistic Social Part Social Part Develops through socialization & interaction Develops through socialization & interaction Altruistic Altruistic Group oriented Group oriented Needs nurturing & developing. Needs nurturing & developing.

39 Anomie “It is this anomic state that is the cause, as we shall show, of the incessantly recurrent conflicts, and the multifarious disorders of which the economic world exhibits so sad a spectacle” ([1893] 1933: 5).

40 Anomie Modern individual insufficiently integrated into society. Modern individual insufficiently integrated into society. Because of these weakening bonds, social regulation breaks down Because of these weakening bonds, social regulation breaks down The controlling influence of society on the desires and interests of the individual is effective The controlling influence of society on the desires and interests of the individual is effective Individuals are left to their own devices. Individuals are left to their own devices.

41 Anomie Because of the dual nature of human beings this breakdown of moral guidance results in: Because of the dual nature of human beings this breakdown of moral guidance results in: Rising rates of deviance Rising rates of deviance Social unrest Social unrest Unhappiness Unhappiness Stress Stress

42 Anomie "The more one has, the more one wants, since satisfactions received only stimulate instead of filling needs" (1951, p. 248).

43 Research Suicide rates are social facts 4 types of suicide: 1. Egoistic 2. Altruistic 3. Anomic 4. Fatalistic

44 Egoistic Suicide Low social integration Low social integration Group solidarity has declined Group solidarity has declined Individual must depend on self Individual must depend on self Excessive individualism in modern society Excessive individualism in modern society Examples of vulnerable groups: Examples of vulnerable groups: Urban dwellers Urban dwellers Industrial workers Industrial workers Protestants Protestants Unmarried men. Unmarried men.

45 Altruistic Suicide High social integration High social integration Excessive integration into group Excessive integration into group Person completely absorbed by group Person completely absorbed by group Duty to commit suicide for benefit of group Duty to commit suicide for benefit of group Examples: Examples: Found more in less “civilized” societies Found more in less “civilized” societies One group in modern society—Army. One group in modern society—Army.

46 Anomic Suicide Low social regulation Low social regulation Breakdown of moral community Breakdown of moral community Human nature to be dissatisfied Human nature to be dissatisfied " The more one has, the more one wants, since satisfactions received only stimulate instead of filling needs" (Durkheim) " The more one has, the more one wants, since satisfactions received only stimulate instead of filling needs" (Durkheim) No rules or vague rules No rules or vague rules Examples: Examples: Adolescents Adolescents Older white men. Older white men.

47 Fatalistic Suicide Excessive social regulation Excessive social regulation Too tightly controlled Too tightly controlled Few choices Few choices Examples: Examples: Slaves Slaves Very young husbands Very young husbands Married women when divorce is not available. Married women when divorce is not available.

48 Contribution to Sociology Institutionalized Sociology Institutionalized Sociology Taught first class Taught first class Defined area of research Defined area of research Conducted research to illustrate sociology’s usefulness. Conducted research to illustrate sociology’s usefulness.

49 Contribution to Sociology Set the standard for research style & presentation Set the standard for research style & presentation Literature review Literature review Theoretical context Theoretical context Testable hypotheses Testable hypotheses Use of statistics Use of statistics Implications of findings. Implications of findings.


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