4Enlightenment Thinkers Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke spoke of ideas like human rights.Their strongest idea was people’s right to rebel against the_______________.
5American RevolutionAmerican colonists challenged their home country Great Britain.They protested taxes!1776 Declaration of Independence was sent to England.France sent nobles then soldiers, sailors and weapons to help.
6Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence was written by_________________, and was issued by Congress on July 4, 1776
7Boston MassacreAt the Boston Massacre, _______________fired into a crowd of protestors and killed 5 people.
8Boston Tea PartyAt the Boston Tea Party, _____________ protested the Tea Act by dumping British Tea into the Boston Harbor.
9End of the WarWith French help, the Colonist defeated the British at ___________in 1781.
10Society under the Old Regime In France, people were divided into three estatesFirst EstateHigh-ranking members of the ChurchPrivileged classSecond EstateNobilityThird EstateEveryone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the citiesUnprivileged class
11Journal Entry Question #1 How was the French Revolution a change brought about by the Enlightenment and the American Revolution?
12Journal Entry Question #2 What is the purpose of a constitution?
13The Causes #1 Unfair Social Divisions #2 Unequal Tax Burdens First Estate: Clergy, or church officialsSecond Estate: Aristocracy (nobles)Third Estate: Bourgeoisie and peasants#2 Unequal Tax BurdensThe third estate had no voice in government owned 10% of the land and paid 100% of the taxes
14The Causes #3 Government Debts Expensive wars Royal spending out of control#4 Financial CrisisVery High cost of living for the very poor
15Louis XVI – the King at the outbreak of the French Revolution Louis XVI loaned money and ships to the Americans in their war for independence – not because he loved democracy but because he hated EnglandLouis XVI was incapable of managing his country in a crisis
16The King’s family lived in luxury Louis XVI was a good husband and father but not a very good kingHe and his family lived at Versailles and knew nothing of the suffering of the peopleThe King’s family spent millions on their lifestyle while peasants starved
17The Palace of Versailles, home of the Ancien Regime and symbol of all that was wrong with France
18The King didn’t listen Famine and disease were running rampant The price of bread doubled and the women of Paris marched on VersaillesThe Bread Riots and the Women’s March on Versailles got Louis’s attention
19On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women and some men, marched toward Versailles, demanding to see "the Baker," "the Baker's wife," and "the Baker's boy". The King agreed to meet with some of the women and promised to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd.The National Guard arrived on the scene to take the King back to Paris. This complicated matters. Some of the crowd got into the Queen's quarters and Marie Antoinette barely escaped by way of a secret passage to the King's room. He agreed to address the people from his balcony. "My friends," he said, "I will go to Paris with my wife and my children."This was a fatal mistake. It was the last time the King saw Versailles.
20Calling the Estates General - May 5, 1789 When the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles. The third estate, dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery and finally the clergy dressed in full regalia. The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head, rather than by order. (Since there were far more delegates from the third estate, this plan would give them a majority). The King refused to grant their request. The third estate refused to budge.
21The Tennis Court Oath"The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom. . . decrees that all members of this assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate. . . until the constitution of the kingdom is established on firm foundations. . ." June 20, 1789
22Storming the BastilleThe Bastille was a prison that held many political prisoners.The mob wanted to free the prisoners so they stormed the prison on July 14, 1789.Blood was shed – there was no going back now.
23A New Revolutionary Spirit… The Marquis de Lafayette, commander of the new National Guard, combined the colors of the King (white) and the colors of Paris (blue and red) for his guardsmen's uniforms and from this came the Tricolor, the new French flag.
24First a marching song – then a National Anthem – Le Marseillaise “Come children of the Motherland, the day of glory has arrived! Against us, the tyrant has raised his bloody banner, has raised his bloody banner! Don't you hear across our countryside the roar of his merciless soldiers? They are coming right into your arms to butcher your friends and family! Citizens, to arms! Let's march! March! So that our very fields shall wash with their evil blood!”The Marseillaise
25The Movement needed a Slogan Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité: The French RevolutionLiberty - FreedomEquality – No social classesFraternity - Brotherhood
26Death of a King The King was beheaded January 21, 1793. The Queen was beheaded October 16, 1793.The young heir who would have been Louis XVII died shortly thereafter.
27After the death of Louis XVI in 1793, the Reign of Terror began After the death of Louis XVI in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. The first victim was Marie Antoinette. She had been imprisoned with her children after she was separated from Louis. First they took her son Louis Charles from her (often called the lost dauphin, or Louis XVII). He disappeared under suspicious circumstances. Then she led off a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent citizens to their deaths. The guillotine, the new instrument of egalitarian justice, was put to work. Public executions were considered educational. Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July Across France 30,000 people lost their lives.
28The Reign of TerrorThe Reign of Terror began with the death of the QueenMany were put in prison for later execution.
29Maximilien Robespierre Robespierre was named the head of the Committee on Public Safety.Their job was to round up and execute enemies of the Revolution – that meant anyone who disagreed with Robespierre.
30The DirectoryA new government was set in place called the Directory which did not work.The Directory was overthrown and replaced by a Consulate, headed by Two Consuls – one of whom was Napoleon Bonaparte.Napoleon quickly brought about a coup d’etat and became the sole ruler.
31Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon had made his name through the military. He was trained in the finest military school in Paris and went on to win many battles.
32The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques Louis David – notice that he has already crowned himself and now is crowning his wife, Josephine. The Pope has to sit and watch; symbolic of the kind of ruler Napoleon was to be.
33The French Revolution ended in 1799 when Napoleon entered Paris and became First Consul at the age of 30. A brilliant politician and a military genius, he took the title of Emperor Napoleon I in 1804.
34Napoleon’s Accomplishments Created a new legal system, the Napoleonic Code.Set up schoolsEnded the estate social class systemCreated a bureaucracy based on merit not on birth.Reduced the power of the Catholic ChurchRequired all citizens to pay taxes
35Napoleon’s DownfallWhen Napoleon attempted to invade Russia in 1812 he failed BADLY!After that Napoleon was captured and exiled to the island of Elba.He escaped and Napoleon returned to Paris.At a battle called Waterloo, Napoleon was finally defeated and sent to the Island of St. Helena were he died in 1821.
36The Congress of ViennaIn 1814 European leaders met in Austria before the French Revolution.to return Europe to the way it was Their goal was to bring a balance of power that would prevent any single nation from controlling Europe.European leaders were against individual rights and nationalism and brought back power to the royal families.