Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Managing in a Global Environment. The International Business Environment u Greater difficulties and risks when performing management functions."— Presentation transcript:
The International Business Environment u Greater difficulties and risks when performing management functions - due to differences in culture, language, economies, laws, political stability, etc.
Multinational/Global Corporations are criticized for: Excessive profits Lack of technology transfer Lack of respect for local culture Interference with governments complain about host countries: Profit limitations Overpriced resources Foreign exchange restrictions Failure to meet contract obligations
1 Getting Started Internationally u Importing/ Outsourcing (e.g., Nike) u Exporting (e.g., L.L. Bean) u Licensing (e.g., Lowenbrau) u Franchising (e.g., McDonald’s) u Direct Investing –Joint Venture (e.g., Toyota and GM have made cars jointly) –Wholly Owned Foreign Affiliates F Acquisition (e.g.,BP purchasing AMOCO) F Greenfield Venture (e.g., Toyota making cars in Kentucky)
1 Chapter 3 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture (National Social Values) u Power Distance u Uncertainty Avoidance u Individualism/Collectivism u Masculinity/Femininity u Time Orientation
1 Chapter 3 Power Distance High power distance means people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations, and people Uncertainty Avoidance High uncertainty avoidance means that members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity
1 Chapter 3 Individualism & Collectivism u Individualism reflects a value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves u Collectivism is a preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals look after one another
1 Chapter 3 Masculinity/Femininity (Toughness/Tenderness) (Achievement/Nurturing) u Masculine cultures stress the importance of achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material success u Feminine cultures value relationships, modesty, caring for the weak, and quality of life
1 Chapter 3 Time Orientation u Short-Term Orientation means that people expect fairly rapid feedback from decisions, expect quick profits, frequent job evaluations and promotions, etc.
1 Chapter 3 Other Cultural Characteristics u Language u Religion u Space u Time Orientation (monochronic vs. polychronic)
1 Chapter 3 Managing Cross-Culturally u Must be culturally flexible and easily adapt to new situations and ways of doing things u Cannot be ethnocentric u Culture Shock = frustration and anxiety from different culture u Motivating - Must fit the incentives with the culture Must fit the incentives with the culture u Controlling- Often are unable to fire unproductive employees and must find creative ways of dealing with them.
1 World Trade Organization World Trade Organization WTO replaced GATT ( General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ) in 1995 157 Members as of February 2012 About 25 nations are candidates or “observers” Iran is the largest candidate in economic power WTO More Power than GATT Enforcing rulings on trade disputes Monitoring trade policies u GATT: Most Favored Nation (MFN) = members granted reduced tariffs, etc. u WTO: MFN status now called Normal Trade Relations (NTR)
European Union (EU) u Formed in 1958 to improve economic and social conditions among its members u 27 nation alliance is an open market for Europe's 400+ million consumers. u Moving toward one economy and one currency (Euro)
Advantages of the EU u Increased competition and economies of scale will enable companies to grow large and efficient u Will become more competitive in the United States and other world markets.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1994 u Canada, Mexico, and U.S. u Alliance including approximately 400 million consumers u To spur growth and investment, increase exports, and expand jobs in all three nations
Opposition to NAFTA u Many opposed the agreement due to fear of job losses to Mexico u Others fear weakened pollution standards and toxic dumping.