2Objectives Identify the elements of a high quality program Learn the ingredients of active learningIdentify the factors of intrinsic motivationDiscuss the learning cycle and how it relates to intrinsic motivation
3Who We Are and What We DoWhat struck you about the work HighScope does?What was something you did not know about HighScope?
4HighScope Curriculum A set of teaching practices for adults Content for children’s learning in all areas of developmentAn assessment system to measure program quality and evaluate what children learnA training model to prepare teachers to use the curriculum
5Wheel of Learning ADULT-CHILD ASSESSMENT INTERACTIONS ACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTDAILY ROUTINE
6Elements of QualityIn your table groups create a list of words or phrases that would describe a high quality program.
7Elements of Quality Child development curriculum Low enrollment limits Staff trained in early childhood developmentSupervisory support & in-service trainingInvolvement of parents as partnersSensitivity to non-educational needs of childrenDevelopmentally appropriate evaluation procedures
14HobbiesTurn to a partner and talk about something you like to do and why.
15Types of MotivationExtrinsic Motivation: Individuals are motivated by the need to receive rewards or punishments to alter their behavior. Drive comes from outsideIntrinsic Motivation: Individual’s behavior arises from his or her own needs, not how others will respond. Drive comes from within
16Intrinsic Motivation Interest Enjoyment Control Probability of success Feelings of competence and self-confidence
17Learning CyclePlayEnjoyRepeat PlayRisk takingMasteryAll is well
18See self as a competent knitter My Learning CycleKnit a scarfSee self as a competent knitterKnit a sweater
19Objectives Identify and experience different types of play Recognize characteristics unique to young children’s thinking and reasoningApply the horizontal approach to teaching children
20Spirit of PlayfulnessWhat are your fondest memories of play as a child?Which ingredients of active learning were present?Do children today experience the same types of play? Why or why not?
21Types of PlayConstructiveExploratoryGamesPretend
24Neural PruningConnections that are used over and over get stronger and faster.Connections that are not used, die out.
25Group DiscussionBased on what we experienced in the yarn activity, what do children need to grow their brains?
26The Importance of Play in Brain Development Play allows children to:Explore, create, & develop imaginationDiscover their own areas of interest.Learn how to work togetherBuild active, healthy bodies and brains.
27How Preschoolers’ Thinking Differs from Adult Thinking
28EgocentrismYoung children see the world only from their own view point.“If I can’t see you, you can’t see me.”“I would like a doll for my birthday so my mom should want one too.”
29AnimismIf something moves (e.g., water, clothes flapping in the breeze) or if it somehow looks alive (e.g., headlights of a car at night), it must be alive.“Look, the water is running to get in my shoes.”
30Concrete DefinitionsWords have concrete, literal meanings related to things children have experienced.When a child hears that his birthday is “just around the corner,” he may want to look around the corner.
31Judging By Appearances Children base judgments about number and amount completely on appearances.Alicia and Monica both took the same size cracker from the basket, but Alicia broke hers into two pieces and Monica broke hers into many smaller pieces. Alicia is upset because Monica has “more crackers.”
32Focus on Here and NowChildren cannot see the relationship between the way something was and how it’s transformed – sometimes called “slide show thinking.”A child watches her brother put on a scary mask. The child is then scared of the “monster” because she cannot make a connection between her brother and the “monster.”
33Blending Intuitive and Scientific Thought Children incorporate newly-learned scientific information with their own perception.Melanie’s mother says, “It’s morning.” Melanie replies, “No, it’s still dark, it’s night.” She goes to the window and pulls open the curtain. “Now it’s light. I made it morning.”
42Learning a New TaskWe have experienced cutting round or rectangular cakes.We try to cut the cake based on what we already know.We can’t fit these new rules and this weird cake shape into our existing knowledge about cutting cakes.We have to change what we know about cutting cakes (learn a new way).
43Piaget’s Concepts:Assimilation - trying to fit new input into an existing mental frame-work; resistance to change -- Trying to cut the cakeDisequilibrium - a state of intellectual imbalance; inner conflict (“problem”); provides motivation to find a solution -- Can’t cut the cake
44Piaget’s Concepts cont. Accommodation - modifying an existing mental framework to accept new input; need for change -- Turn the knife to cut the cakeEquilibrium - a state of intellectual balance; inner contentment; solution of conflict/problem results in new understanding -- New way to cut the cake
45Approaches to Education Vertical ApproachHorizontal ApproachTNCan DoTNCan’t do
46Nora’s Use of Scissors With a partner, read the story about Nora Discuss how you would help Nora master the use of scissorsShare ideas with entire group
47Real life situations like Nora’s With your group, think of a situation that has happened or is happening in your own program similar to Nora.Brainstorm support ideas using the horizontal approach to teaching.