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1 Chapter 11 Developing Leadership Diversity. 2 Diversity Workforce Diversity  A workforce made up of people with different human qualities or who belong.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 11 Developing Leadership Diversity. 2 Diversity Workforce Diversity  A workforce made up of people with different human qualities or who belong."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 11 Developing Leadership Diversity

2 2 Diversity Workforce Diversity  A workforce made up of people with different human qualities or who belong to various cultural groups Diversity  Differences among people in terms of age, ethnicity, gender, race, or other dimensions

3 3 Dimensions of Diversity Age Ethnicity Gender Physical abilities/qualities Race Educational background Income Geographic location Marital status Military experience Religious beliefs Work experience Parental status Primary Secondary

4 4 Interactive Leadership A leadership style in which people develop personal relationships with followers, share power and information, empower employees, and strive to enhance others’ feelings of self-worth See living leadership on page 437

5 5 Ways women lead Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Individual consideration Intellectual stimulation

6 6 Social Value Systems Power Distance  How much people accept equality in power; high power distance reflects an acceptance of power inequality among institutions, organizations, and individuals. Low power distance means people expect equality in power Uncertainty Avoidance  The degree to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity and thus support beliefs and behaviors that promise certainty and conformity Individualism  A value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves

7 7 Social Value Systems (contd.) Collectivism  A preference for a tightly knit social framework in which people look out for one another and organizations protect their members’ interests Masculinity  A preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality, and material success Femininity  A preference for relationships, cooperation, group decision making, and quality of life

8 Ex. 11.3 Rank Orderings of 10 Countries Along Four Dimensions of National Value Systems (adapted) CountryPowerUncertaintyIndividualismMasculinity Australia 7725 Costa Rica 82 (tie) 109 France 32 (tie) 47 India 2966 Japan 5171 Mexico 1482 Sweden 10 3 Thailand 4698 United States 6814

9 9 Ethnocentrism The belief that one’s own culture and subculture are inherently superior to other cultures The one-best-way approach leads to a mind set that views difference as deficiency or dysfunction Mommy track: implies that a woman’s commitment to her children limits her commitment to the company or her ability to handle the rigors of corporate leadership. WSJ Article: Why few women run plants

10 10 Biculturalism The sociocultural skills and attitudes used by racial minorities as they move back and forth between the dominant culture and their own ethnic or racial culture

11 11 Glass Ceiling An invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top leadership positions “The glass ceiling persists because top-level corporate culture in most organizations still revolves around traditional management thinking, a vertical hierarchy populated by white, American-born males, who often hire and promote people who look, act, and think like them. Many organizations were originally created by and for men, and the prevailing work practices and patterns of social interaction tend to privilege men and disadvantage women, often in subtle ways” (p. 450).

12 Ex. 11.5 Evolution of Organizational Diversity Awareness and Action Stage 1 Meet legal requirements Diversity as a “problem” Stage 3 Diversity as a competitive weapon Effort to recruit/retain minorities Stage 4 Diversity as “Moral Imperative” Top-level commitment to valuing diversity Stage 5 Diversity is inherent in the culture Gender and color-blind Stage 2 “We need to react” Recognition of barriers minorities face

13 13 Barriers to evolution Ethnocentrism Stereotypes and prejudice The “white male” club The paradox of diversity  We are more comfortable with homogeneity  There are challenges to managing diversity Actual cultural differences

14 14 Personal qualities for leading diverse organizations A personal, long-range vision that recognizes and supports a diverse organizational community A broad knowledge of the dimensions of diversity and awareness of multicultural issues An openness to change themselves Monitoring and empowerment of diverse employees

15 15 Diversity Awareness Training Training that helps employees become aware of their own cultural boundaries, their prejudices and stereotypes, so that they can learn to work together successfully

16 16 Ex. 11.6 Stages of Personal Diversity Awareness Defense Perceives threat against one’s comfortable worldview Uses negative stereotyping Assumes own culture superior Minimizing Differences Hides or trivializes cultural differences Focuses on similarities among all peoples Acceptance Accepts behavioral differences and underlying differences in values Recognizes validity of other ways of thinking and perceiving the world Adaptation Able to empathize with those of other cultures Able to shift from one cultural perspective to another Integration Multicultural attitude – enables one to integrate differences and adapt both cognitively and behaviorally Lowest Level of Awareness Highest Level of Awareness


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