2 Diversity Workforce Diversity Diversity A workforce made up of people with different human qualities or who belong to various cultural groupsDiversityDifferences among people in terms of age, ethnicity, gender, race, or other dimensions
4 Interactive Leadership A leadership style in which people develop personal relationships with followers, share power and information, empower employees, and strive to enhance others’ feelings of self-worthSee living leadership on page 437
5 Ways women lead Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Individual considerationIntellectual stimulation
6 Social Value Systems Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance How much people accept equality in power; high power distance reflects an acceptance of power inequality among institutions, organizations, and individuals. Low power distance means people expect equality in powerUncertainty AvoidanceThe degree to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity and thus support beliefs and behaviors that promise certainty and conformityIndividualismA value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves
7 Social Value Systems (contd.) CollectivismA preference for a tightly knit social framework in which people look out for one another and organizations protect their members’ interestsMasculinityA preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality, and material successFemininityA preference for relationships, cooperation, group decision making, and quality of life
8 Ex. 11.3 Rank Orderings of 10 Countries Along Four Dimensions of National Value Systems (adapted) CountryPowerUncertaintyIndividualismMasculinityAustralia725Costa Rica82 (tie)109France34India6Japan1MexicoSwedenThailandUnited States
9 EthnocentrismThe belief that one’s own culture and subculture are inherently superior to other culturesThe one-best-way approach leads to a mind set that views difference as deficiency or dysfunctionMommy track: implies that a woman’s commitment to her children limits her commitment to the company or her ability to handle the rigors of corporate leadership.WSJ Article: Why few women run plants
10 BiculturalismThe sociocultural skills and attitudes used by racial minorities as they move back and forth between the dominant culture and their own ethnic or racial culture
11 Glass CeilingAn invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top leadership positions“The glass ceiling persists because top-level corporate culture in most organizations still revolves around traditional management thinking, a vertical hierarchy populated by white, American-born males, who often hire and promote people who look, act, and think like them. Many organizations were originally created by and for men, and the prevailing work practices and patterns of social interaction tend to privilege men and disadvantage women, often in subtle ways” (p. 450).
12 Ex. 11.5 Evolution of Organizational Diversity Awareness and Action Stage 5Diversity is inherent in the cultureGender and color-blindStage 4Diversity as “Moral Imperative”Top-level commitment to valuing diversityStage 3Diversity as a competitive weaponEffort to recruit/retain minoritiesStage 2“We need to react”Recognition of barriers minorities faceStage 1Meet legal requirementsDiversity as a “problem”
13 Barriers to evolution Ethnocentrism Stereotypes and prejudice The “white male” clubThe paradox of diversityWe are more comfortable with homogeneityThere are challenges to managing diversityActual cultural differences
14 Personal qualities for leading diverse organizations A personal, long-range vision that recognizes and supports a diverse organizational communityA broad knowledge of the dimensions of diversity and awareness of multicultural issuesAn openness to change themselvesMonitoring and empowerment of diverse employees
15 Diversity Awareness Training Training that helps employees become aware of their own cultural boundaries, their prejudices and stereotypes, so that they can learn to work together successfully
16 Ex. 11.6 Stages of Personal Diversity Awareness Highest Level of AwarenessIntegrationMulticultural attitude – enables one to integrate differences and adapt both cognitively and behaviorallyAdaptationAble to empathize with those of other culturesAble to shift from one cultural perspective to anotherAcceptanceAccepts behavioral differences and underlying differences in valuesRecognizes validity of other ways of thinking and perceiving the worldMinimizing DifferencesHides or trivializes cultural differencesFocuses on similarities among all peoplesDefensePerceives threat against one’s comfortable worldviewUses negative stereotypingAssumes own culture superiorLowest Level of Awareness
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