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At Home, the Community & Work Barry Wellman NetLab Director, University of Toronto

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Presentation on theme: "At Home, the Community & Work Barry Wellman NetLab Director, University of Toronto"— Presentation transcript:

1 at Home, the Community & Work Barry Wellman NetLab Director, University of Toronto

2 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 2 NetLab Goals Descend from seeing the Internet As Transcendentally Unique Towards Immanently Embedded in Everyday Life Use Real World Social Data Survey, Network analysis, Ethnography Evaluate indicators of the turn towards Networked Individualism Bias towards working collaboratively Interdisciplinary (Comp sci, Info sci, Comm sci, etc International comparisons: the Non-Universal net Build (and Evaluate) stuff, as well as Studying stuff

3 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 3 This Conference is about The Turn to Networked Societies Computer Networks, Economic Networks & Communication Networks Are All Social Networks Been Doing Social Network Analysis for 35+ Years Founded Int’l Net for Net Analysis 1977 Glad to Have You Aboard! Conference in Cancun Next Month

4 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 4 Outline of Talk A Conference Theme: What is the Transformed Nature of Work & and Community in a Networked Society? Transformation Began Before the Internet From Group-Based to Networked Societies Door-to-Door, Place-to-Place, Person-to-Person Transforming Enterprise –Networked Individualism The Six Socials: Linkages, Capital, Cohesion, Mobilization, Control, Exclusion

5 Door-to Door Groups Place-to- Place Glocalizatio n Person-to-Person Networked Individualism

6 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 6 Social Transformation: From Groups to Networks Changing Connectivity Sparsely-Knit Loosely-Bounded Multiple Foci

7 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 7 Already Transformed Communities: Pre-Internet The household’s community, not the individual’s Community dispersed – regionally, (inter)nationally More friends, neighbours, acquaintances, workmates than kin Sparsely-knit: few directly connected with each other Specialized support Domestication: Encounters in Private Space Homes, Phones Wives organize/serve couples’ get-togethers & ties with in-laws

8 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 8 Second Age of Internet Studies: From Transcendence to Imminence Documenting & Situating For Government, Academe, Commerce, Public Interest Ethnographies Surveys – Access, Users and Uses Realizations that Reliable Research Data Needed Grounding Internet Use in Overall Experiences Integrating Net Use with Other Media Use Differentiating Types of User Populations

9 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 9 Second Age of Internet Studies: From Transcendence to Imminence Is the Internet … Disconnecting Household Members? Transforming, Diminishing, Adding To Communication; Community? Civic Involvement: Voluntary Orgs, Politics? Alienation: Loss of Control, Sense of Control? Replacing Everyday Pursuits? Affecting Structure of Work?

10 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 10 Changing Users and Uses Within-Country Digital Divides Decreasing Newbies Look Like Rest of Population SES, Language Remain Important Gender, Age, Life-Cycle Gaps Closing North Americans Resemble General Pop. Other OECD & Non-OECD Countries More: Male, Better Educated, Younger, Single Does Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny? New Catalan & Japanese Research

11 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 11 From Newbies to Users People Rapidly Become Experienced Users Become Frequent Users The Real Digital Divide is Know-How – Not Access AMD Global Consumer Advisory Board: Computer “SATs” Coming

12 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 12 National Geographic Survey 2000 and Survey 2001 “Survey 2000” -- Fall 1998 – Cleaned Sample 15,659 North Americans (US, Canada) 77% 3,079Other OECD (Germany, Japan, etc.) 15% 1,604Non-OECD (Often Less Developed) 8% “Survey 2001” – Entering Data Analysis Stage Collaborators: Jeffrey Boase, Wenhong Chen, Keith Hampton, Catherine Mobley, Anabel Quan-Haase, James Witte

13 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 13

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15 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 15

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17 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 17

18 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 18 Adds on To F2F, Phone Nearby Interactions Continue to Predominate 63% of All Contact with Kin are with Nearby Kin 42% of all Contact with Kin are with Nearby Kin Multiple Media Used For Daily ers For Nearby Kin, is 22% of All Contact For Faraway Kin, is 53% of All Contact Friendship Data is Similar, but More Contact And More Contact

19 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 19 Keith Hampton & Barry Wellman City and Community, 2003 Highly Fast Asynchronous Transfer Mode 16 MegaBit/Second Always On Telco Field Trial in Toronto Suburb

20 View of Netville

21 “Wired” and “Non-Wired” Neighboring in Netville Recognized by Name Talk with Regularly Invited into Own Home Invited into Neighbors’ Homes # of Intervening Lots to Known Neighbors Mean Number of Neighbors : Wired (37) Non- Wired (20 ) Wired/ NonWired Ratio Signif. Level (p <)

22 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 22 Catalonian Web Surfers Few Use Frequently Most Use Web Services Frequently Why? Localistic Society: Most Friends and Kin Live Nearby Most Live with Parents High Touch Society: Smell, See, Feel, Hear Whys are Conjectures Now

23 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 23 Japanese Mobilers Phone Based Web Services Small Screens Phone Based Texting /Short Messages Frequent short contacts rather than long statements Young Use Mobiles; Mid/Old Use PCs Cohort or Age-Grade Effect? Richness vs Portability Incompatible Systems Hinder Social Cohesion

24 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 24 The Double Internet Paradox (1a) First Age Hype Asserted that Internet Would Transform Society (1b) As, the Internet Became Embedded in Everyday Life (2a) Second Age Documenting the Embedding of the Internet in Everyday Life (2b) As Societies Quietly Transforming From Groups to Networks

25 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 25 Turn Towards Networked Individualism Transportation & Communication Have Become Individualized Dual Careers – Multiple Schedules Multiple Employers Sequential and Contemporaneous Physical Separation of Work, Home, Commerce Movement of Work away from Workplace: Teleworker, Flex Worker, Road Warrior Computerization Allows Personalization No Over-Arching Social Controllers

26 Place To Place (GloCalization) (Phones, Networked PCs, Airplanes, Expressways, RR, Transit) Home, Office Important Contexts, Not Intervening Space Specialized Relationships – Not MultiStranded Ties Ramified & Sparsely Knit: Not Local Solidarities Not neighborhood-based Not densely-knit with a group feeling Partial Membership in Multiple Workgroups/ Communities Often Based on Shared Interest Connectivity Beyond Neighborhood, Work Site “GloCalization”: Globally Connected, Locally Invested Household to Household / Work Group to Work Group Domestication, Feminization of Community Knowledge Comes From Internal & External Sources

27 Technological Changes Foster Social Affordances for New Forms of Community Bandwidth – Information Knowledge? Anytime – 24 / 7 / 365 Anywhere – Ubiquity Globalized Connectivity Wireless Portability Convergence – Any Medium Accesses All Personalization

28 Person-to-Person: Networked Individualism (Mobile Phones, Wireless Computing, Lonely Car) Individualized Networking Little Awareness of Context Private Desires Replace Public Civility Multiple Specialized Relationships Partial Membership in Multiple Networks Long-Distance Relationships  More Transitory Relationships Online Interactions Linked with Offline More Uncertainty, More Maneuverability Less Palpable than Traditional Solidarities: Alienation? Sparsely-Knit: Fewer Direct Connections Than Door-To-Door Possibly Less Caring for Strangers More Weak Ties Need for Institutional Memory & Knowledge Management

29 Barry Wellmanwww.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman 29 The Six Socials Linkages: Networks, Not Groups Capital: Networking, not Org. Membership (Putnam) Cohesion: No Single Commitment; Crosscutting Ties Mobilization: Interpersonal, Ad Hoc Control: Maneuverability among Multiple Nets Exclusion: Informed Use, not Access, to Internet

30 Groups  Networks ** Each in its Place  Mobility of People and Goods ** United Family  Serial Marriage, Mixed Custody Shared Community  Multiple & Partial Personal Nets Neighborhoods  Dispersed Communities Surveillance  Privacy Control  Autonomy Voluntary Organizations  Informal Leisure Face-to-Face  Computer-Mediated Communication Public Spaces  Private Spaces Visibility  Anonymity Focused Work Unit  Networked Organization Job in a Company  Career in a Profession Autarky  Outsourcing Office, Factory  Airplane, Internet, Cellphone Ascription  Achievement Hierarchies  Multiple Reporting Relationships Conglomerates  Virtual Organizations/Alliances Collective Security  Civil Liberties Cold War Blocs  Fluid, Transitory Alliances

31 Barry Wellman & Caroline Haythornthwaite editors Blackwell Publishers, 2002 Papers at


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