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Project Risk Management. Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph. 5264089 Fx. 5264088

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Presentation on theme: "Project Risk Management. Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph. 5264089 Fx. 5264088"— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Risk Management

2 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Risk Management Processes  Risk Management Planning : deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for a project  Risk Identification : determining which risks might effect the project and documenting their characteristics  Qualitative Risk Analysis : performing a qualitative analysis of risks and condition to prioritize their effect for project objectives  Quantitative Risk Analysis : measuring the probability and consequences of risks and estimating their implications for project objectives  Risk Response Planning : developing procedures and techniques to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project objectives  Risk Monitoring and Control : monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, executing risk reduction plans, and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the project life cylce.

3 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Risk Management

4 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Project Risk Management  Risk management must be done during the whole life of the project  All risks have a probability > 0 and < 100%  A risk event that has a probability = 100% is not a risk

5 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Tolerance Risks that may not be considered as important to the project are :  Risks that have very high probabilities and very low impacts, and  Risks that have very low probabilities and very high impacts Risks we need to worry about are those that have a reasonably high probability and high impact

6 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Steps in risk management Practices

7 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Idetifikasi Resiko Penilaian Resiko Menyusun Respons Mengendalikan Respons Resiko Analisis Proyek untuk mengidentifikasi sumber resiko Menilai resiko dalam hal : - Tingkat keparahan dampak - Kemungkinan terjadi - Kemampuannya untuk dapat di kontrol Mengembangkan strategi untuk mengurangi kerusakan yang mungkin terjadi Menyusun rencana kontingensi Implementasi strategi resiko Memonitor dan menyesuaikan rencana untuk resiko baru Manajemen perubahan Resiko diketahui Penilaian resiko Rencana Manajemen Resiko Resiko baru PROSES MANAJEMEN RESIKO

8 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Assessment & Control  Risk Assessment o Identification – what are the risks? Make a list! (Or borrow one for ideas) o Analysis – assess risk likelihood and impact; find possible alternatives o Prioritization – which risks to focus on? Sort risks by impact  Risk Control o Management planning – mitigation planning, ensure consistency among plans o Resolution – actively manage and resolve each risk when it occurs o Monitoring – track progress toward risk resolution; and identify new risks

9 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx How to Identify Risks  Start with a typical list of software risks  Review development plan Critical Paths Critical Staff Members Critical Vendor Deliveries Critical Milestones  Review Requirements  Review Technical Design  Review Past Projects

10 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx How to Identify Risks (Continued)  Conduct Risk Brainstorming Sessions with Staff, Users, Vendors, Customers, and Management Try to assess the direction of thinking by third parties as they may give an indication of future requirements, expectations, or vendor changes. If your dependent on vendors, try to understand their business situation.  Get as much input as possible!

11 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risks Identification Techniques  Documentation reviews  Brainstorming  Delphi technique  Nominal group technique  Crawford slip  Expert interviews  Analogy

12 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Documentation review  Reviewing lessons learned and risk management plans from previous projects  Reviewing WBS, contract obligations, project baseline for scope, schedule and budget, resource avaibilities, staffing plans, suppliers

13 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Brainstorming  Meeting is called to make a comprehensive list of risks  participants : 10 to 15  The meeting < 2 hours  Participants can name risks  No discussion  Another participants give new ideas for possible risks

14 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Delphi Technique  Similar to brainstorming but the participants do not know one another (anonymous)  useful if the participants are some distance away (particularly using )  Process :  Facilitator distributes quesionnaire to the participants to submit risk ideas  Facilitator catagorize and clarify the responses, then circulate to the participant for comments or addition

15 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Nominal Group Technique  The facilitator instructs each of the participants to privately and silently list his or her idea on a piece of paper  The facilitator takes each piece of paper and lists the ideas on a flip chart or blackboard, then make discussion  Now ranks the ideas in order of importance, again in secret  This technique is faster and require less effort of the facilitator than Delphi Tech.

16 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Crawford Slip  It does not require as strong a facilitator as the other techniques  It produces ideas very quickly < 1/2 hour  Process :  The facilitator asks question  The participants write down the answer  After one minute, the facilitator ask the same question and the participants have to make different answer  This is repeated 10 times

17 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Analysis, Exposure, & Prioritization  For Each Risk: Determine Probability of Occurrence What is the likelyhood of occurrence? Determine Impact What is the impact if it occurres? Determine Exposure What will we lose if the risk occurs?  For All Risks: Prioritize Where should we put our limited resources?

18 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Analysis, Exposure, Prioritization: How?  Various Techniques Available But Key is Experience Individual Organizational  Don’t Rely on Just Yourself - Get lots of Inputs

19 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Assessment: A Simple Classification & Tracking Method  Probability of Occurrence vs Impact 1 to 5 Scale  Priorities Red - High Yellow - Med Green - Low  Review/Present Chart Periodically

20 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Assessment: Probability Methods  Can we quantitize the risk?  For Each Risk: For Each Possible Action: Estimate Probability of an Given Outcome P(O) Estimate $ Loss of an Given Outcome L(O) Multiply the P(O) by L(O) to give $ exposure for the unwanted outcome Sum all $ exposures for each Possible Action Compare the $ exposures Calculate Risk Leverage (Risk Exposure Before Reduction - Risk Exposure After Reduction) / (Cost of Risk Reduction)

21 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Example Risk Assessment Using Probability Method

22 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Assessment Matrix Risk event Chance- LMH Severity- LMH Detection difficulty- LMH When

23 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Top 10 Risks  Personnel Shortfalls Staffing with Top Talent Job Matching Team Building Morale Building Cross-Training Pre-scheduling Key People Software Risk Management: Principles and Practices, B.W. Boehm, IEEE Software, Jan., 1991, pg

24 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Unrealistic Schedules and Budgets and/or Underestimating Problem Complexity Detailed multisource cost and schedule estimation Design to Cost Incremental Development Software Reuse Requirements Scrubbing Top 10 Risks

25 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Developing the Wrong Software Functions Domain Analysis (Organizational Analysis/Mission Analysis) Operational Concept Formulation User Surveys Prototyping Early User Manuals Top 10 Risks

26 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Developing the Wrong User Interface Prototyping Scenerios Task Analysis  Gold Plating Requirements Scrubbing Prototyping Cost-Benefit Analysis Design to Cost Top 10 Risks

27 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Continuing Stream of Requirements High Change Threshold Information Hiding Incremental Development (defer changes to later increments) Top 10 Risks

28 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Shortfalls in Externally Performed Tasks Reference Checking Pre-award Audits Award-fee Contracts Competitive design or prototyping Team Building Top 10 Risks

29 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Shortfalls in Externally Furnished Components Benchmarking Inspections Reference Checking Compatability Analysis Examples: Compilers Development Environments Target Hardware Top 10 Risks

30 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Real-Time Performance Shortfalls Simulation Benchmarking Modeling Prototyping Instrumentation Tuning Performance Parameter Allocations Top 10 Risks

31 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx  Straining Computer Science Capabilities or Introduction of New Technology to an Organization Technical Analysis Cost-Benefit Analysis Prototyping Reference Checking Staff Training Example: Use of a new language, tool, or method Top 10 Risks

32 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Control  Risk Reduction  Contingency Planning  Monitoring Risks Response Planning

33 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Risk Reduction  Avoiding Risk : Avoid the risk completely Modifying project requirements  Transferring the Risk : Move the impact of the risk to some other party, sharing risk By allocation to other systems, Buying Insurance to cover financial loses, Subcontracting  Mitigating the Risk : reduce the probability or impact of the risk  adding additional tests, hiring duplicate suppliers, adding more expert personnel, designing prototypes  performance bond, guarantees

34 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Contingency Planning  Some risks cannot be reduced  Plan for risk occurrence  Why? Reduces “Crisis” atmosphere Reduces chance of mistakes Reduces time to correct

35 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Perencanaan Kontingensi  Rencana Kontingensi adalah sebuah rencana alternatif yang akan digunakan jika suatu peristiwa resiko yang diperkirakan belum menjadi kenyataan.  Mencegah penundaan keputusan, kepanikan, dan pengambilan keputusan di bawah tekanan.

36 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Matriks Respons Resiko ResikoKemungkinanKontingensiPemicuTanggung Jwb Antar mukaMengurangiWork around smp bantuan datang Tdk diselesaikan dlm 24 jam --- Syst. freezingMengurangiInstal ulang OS Frozen setelah 1 jam Emmy Keluhan userMengurangiMeningkatkan dukungan staf Panggilan dari top manajemen Eddie Malfungsi alatDipindahkan Memesan merk lain Penggantian tdk bekerja Jim

37 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Monitoring  Periodic Review of Risk Status Changes in Probabilities or Impacts Changes in Avoidance/Mitigation/Contingency Plans  Periodic Review of Project to Identify New Risks  Implementation of Risk Avoidance or Mitigation Plans  Keep Management and Customers Informed!!! Frequent Risk Reviews

38 Kartika Chandra Hotel Suite 611 Jakarta Ph Fx Responses to Risk Matrix Risk event Accept, reduce, share, transfer Contingency plan Trigger


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