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Lymphatic Medical Terminology Chapter 6. Medical Specialities Allergist – Specialized in diagnosing and treating allergies Allergist – Specialized in.

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Presentation on theme: "Lymphatic Medical Terminology Chapter 6. Medical Specialities Allergist – Specialized in diagnosing and treating allergies Allergist – Specialized in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lymphatic Medical Terminology Chapter 6

2 Medical Specialities Allergist – Specialized in diagnosing and treating allergies Allergist – Specialized in diagnosing and treating allergies Immunologist- specializes in the study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the immune system Immunologist- specializes in the study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the immune system Oncologist- specializes in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders like tumors and cancers. Oncologist- specializes in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders like tumors and cancers.

3 3 Functions of the Lymphatic System 1. Absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system and transport them to the cells 2. Return cellular waste products and excess fluid from tissues to the circulatory system 3. Serve as an important part of immune system

4 Structure of Lymphatic system Lymph fluid Lymph fluid Intercellular fluid- aka interstitial fluid Intercellular fluid- aka interstitial fluid Plasma that flows out of capillaries of circulatory system into spaces between cells Plasma that flows out of capillaries of circulatory system into spaces between cells Carries food, O2 and hormones to cells Carries food, O2 and hormones to cells Lymph fluid or lymph is intercellular fluid as it returns to the veins. Removes waste products from cells in the lymph nodes Lymph fluid or lymph is intercellular fluid as it returns to the veins. Removes waste products from cells in the lymph nodes

5 Lymph vessels Lymph vessels Lymph capillaries- microscopic tubes just under skin that carry lymph from tissues to larger vessels Lymph capillaries- microscopic tubes just under skin that carry lymph from tissues to larger vessels Have valves-lymph always flows toward thoracic cavity Have valves-lymph always flows toward thoracic cavity Lacteals are in sm intestines. Absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins & carries them to blood stream Lacteals are in sm intestines. Absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins & carries them to blood stream

6 Lymph nodes-small bean-shaped structures in lymph vessels that produce lymphocytes and filter lymph to remove harmful substances like bacteria, viruses and malignant cells Lymph nodes-small bean-shaped structures in lymph vessels that produce lymphocytes and filter lymph to remove harmful substances like bacteria, viruses and malignant cells Indicate disease if swollen Indicate disease if swollen

7 Tonsils- masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat Tonsils- masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat

8 Veriform Appendix- lymphatic tissue that hangs from the lower portion of the large intestine. Protects against entry of invaders through digestive system. Veriform Appendix- lymphatic tissue that hangs from the lower portion of the large intestine. Protects against entry of invaders through digestive system. Peyer’s patches- small bundles of lymphatic tissue on walls of small intestine Peyer’s patches- small bundles of lymphatic tissue on walls of small intestine

9 Spleen- saclike mass of lymphatic tissue in LUQ below diaphragm and behind stomach Spleen- saclike mass of lymphatic tissue in LUQ below diaphragm and behind stomach Filters microorganisms and foreign material from blood Filters microorganisms and foreign material from blood Forms lymphocytes and monocytes Forms lymphocytes and monocytes Is hemolytic- destroys worn-out blood cells Is hemolytic- destroys worn-out blood cells Stores extra erythrocytes and keeps balance between rbc’s and plasma Stores extra erythrocytes and keeps balance between rbc’s and plasma

10 Thymus-located above heart Thymus-located above heart Works in endocrine & immune system Works in endocrine & immune system

11 Pathology and diagnostic procedures Lymphadenitis- aka swollen glands Lymphadenitis- aka swollen glands Inflammation of lymph nodes Inflammation of lymph nodes Lymphadenopathy (lim-fad-eh-NOP-athy) Lymphadenopathy (lim-fad-eh-NOP-athy) Any disease process involving enlargement of lymph nodes Any disease process involving enlargement of lymph nodes Lymphaden/o- lymph node Lymphaden/o- lymph node

12 Lymphangiogram- (lim-FAN-jee-oh-gram) Lymphangiogram- (lim-FAN-jee-oh-gram) Radiographic study of lymphatic vessels and nodes with use of contrast medium Radiographic study of lymphatic vessels and nodes with use of contrast medium Lymphangi/o- lymph vessel Lymphangi/o- lymph vessel Lymphangioma- (lim-fan-jee-OH-ma) Lymphangioma- (lim-fan-jee-OH-ma) A benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass A benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass

13 Lymphedema- (lim-feh-DEE-mah) Lymphedema- (lim-feh-DEE-mah) Abnormal accumulation of lymph causing swelling in arms or legs Abnormal accumulation of lymph causing swelling in arms or legs May be primary-genetic disorder May be primary-genetic disorder May be secondary- caused by removal of lymph nodes May be secondary- caused by removal of lymph nodes

14 Splenomegaly- enlargement of the spleen Splenomegaly- enlargement of the spleen Splen-spleen Splen-spleen Splenorrhagia- bleeding from spleen Splenorrhagia- bleeding from spleen

15 Functions and structure of the immune system To protect the body from harmful substances including pathogens, allergens, toxins and malignant cells. To protect the body from harmful substances including pathogens, allergens, toxins and malignant cells. Lymphatic system & bone Lymphatic system & bone marrow, thymus, skin & adenoids.

16 First defense Intact skin is a barrier to bacteria- no cuts or scrapes Intact skin is a barrier to bacteria- no cuts or scrapes Respiratory system traps matter with hairs and mucous membranes. We cough or sneeze them out. Respiratory system traps matter with hairs and mucous membranes. We cough or sneeze them out. Digestive system-acids destroy invaders Digestive system-acids destroy invaders Lymphatic system- filters out Lymphatic system- filters out

17 Immune response Antigen (AN-tih-jen)- any substance like a virus, bacteria, toxin or tissue that the body regards as foreign. Stimulates an immune response Antigen (AN-tih-jen)- any substance like a virus, bacteria, toxin or tissue that the body regards as foreign. Stimulates an immune response Antibody- a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen Antibody- a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen

18 Antigen-Antibody reaction Antigen-Antibody reaction Ag and Ab bind together so wbc will recognize and attack. Ag and Ab bind together so wbc will recognize and attack.

19 Lymphocytes- WBC’s that specialize to attack specific microorganisms Lymphocytes- WBC’s that specialize to attack specific microorganisms Formed in bone marrow as stem cells then mature in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissue Formed in bone marrow as stem cells then mature in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissue Important classes are B cells and T cells Important classes are B cells and T cells Specialized cells

20 B cells B cells Make only one antibody for a specific bacteria or virus Make only one antibody for a specific bacteria or virus Immunoglobulin (im-you-noh-GLOB-you-lin) Immunoglobulin (im-you-noh-GLOB-you-lin) Aka antibody secreted by B cell Aka antibody secreted by B cell Immunoglobulin M- 1 st one body makes Immunoglobulin M- 1 st one body makes Immunoglobulin G- most common type formed the 2 nd time body is exposed to same thing Immunoglobulin G- most common type formed the 2 nd time body is exposed to same thing Immunoglobulin A– Major antibody for defense of mucous membranes Immunoglobulin A– Major antibody for defense of mucous membranes

21 Immunoglobulin E- defense against allergens- causes acute allergic rxns Immunoglobulin E- defense against allergens- causes acute allergic rxns Immunoglobulin D found in small amounts, we think it helps B cells differentiate. Immunoglobulin D found in small amounts, we think it helps B cells differentiate.

22 T Cells T Cells Contribute coordination of immune defense or kill infected cells Contribute coordination of immune defense or kill infected cells Interferon-made by T cell; is a protein released by cells when invaded by virus. Causes cells to form antiviral protein Interferon-made by T cell; is a protein released by cells when invaded by virus. Causes cells to form antiviral protein

23 Macrophage- type of phagocyte that ingests invading cells Macrophage- type of phagocyte that ingests invading cells

24 Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures Allergy- aka hypersensitivity- overreaction by the body to an antigen Allergy- aka hypersensitivity- overreaction by the body to an antigen Occurs when immune system reacts to a harmless allergen like pollen, food or animal dander as if it were dangerous Occurs when immune system reacts to a harmless allergen like pollen, food or animal dander as if it were dangerous

25 Systemic reaction- aka anaphylaxis Systemic reaction- aka anaphylaxis Severe response to foreign substance like drug, food, insect bite or chemical Severe response to foreign substance like drug, food, insect bite or chemical Symptoms include swelling, blocking of air passages and drop in blood pressure. Symptoms include swelling, blocking of air passages and drop in blood pressure. Patient may die within minutes Patient may die within minutes Scratch test- test to diagnose allergens Scratch test- test to diagnose allergens

26 Autoimmune disorders Immune system directs T cells against body’s own tissues Immune system directs T cells against body’s own tissues May be genetic May be genetic 75% occur most frequently in women of childbearing years 75% occur most frequently in women of childbearing years

27 Crohn’s disease- affects intestines Crohn’s disease- affects intestines Diabetes mellitus, type 1- affects insulin producing pancreas cells Diabetes mellitus, type 1- affects insulin producing pancreas cells Graves’ disease- affects Thyroid gland Graves’ disease- affects Thyroid gland Lupus erythematosus- affects skin and other systems Lupus erythematosus- affects skin and other systems Multiple sclerosis- affects brain and spinal cord Multiple sclerosis- affects brain and spinal cord Psoriasis- affects skin Psoriasis- affects skin

28 Crohn’s disease Graves’ disease Lupus Psoriasis Multiple Sclerosis

29 ELISA- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Blood test to screen for HIV antibodies Blood test to screen for HIV antibodies Confirmed by a Western blot test Confirmed by a Western blot test ELISA

30 Treatment Immunotherapy- treatment of disease by enhancing or repressing immune system Immunotherapy- treatment of disease by enhancing or repressing immune system Antibody therapy- uses artificial antibodies to treat disease Antibody therapy- uses artificial antibodies to treat disease Immunosuppression- treatment used to interfere with the ability of immune system to respond to antigens Immunosuppression- treatment used to interfere with the ability of immune system to respond to antigens Cytotoxic drug- kills or damages cells Cytotoxic drug- kills or damages cells

31 Types of pathogens Bacteria Bacteria Bacilli-rod shaped spore forming bacteria. (Ex: tetanus and tuberculosis) Bacilli-rod shaped spore forming bacteria. (Ex: tetanus and tuberculosis) Rickettsia-a small bacterium that lives in fleas, lice, ticks and mites (Rocky Mountain spotted fever transmitted by ticks) Rickettsia-a small bacterium that lives in fleas, lice, ticks and mites (Rocky Mountain spotted fever transmitted by ticks)

32 Spirochetes- spiral shaped bacteria with flexible walls capable of movement (lyme disease- transmitted by ticks) Spirochetes- spiral shaped bacteria with flexible walls capable of movement (lyme disease- transmitted by ticks) Staphylococci (staf-ih-loh-KOCK-sigh) bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters (bacterial pneumonia) Staphylococci (staf-ih-loh-KOCK-sigh) bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters (bacterial pneumonia) Streptococci- bacteria that form a chain (strep throat) Streptococci- bacteria that form a chain (strep throat)

33 Parasites A plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism and hurts that organism A plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism and hurts that organism Malaria is a parasite that comes from certain mosquitoes Malaria is a parasite that comes from certain mosquitoes

34 Viruses Small infectious agents that live only by invading cells Small infectious agents that live only by invading cells Chicken pox- highly contagious, causes fever and pustules Chicken pox- highly contagious, causes fever and pustules Caused by Varicella zoster Caused by Varicella zoster

35 Herpes zoster- aka shingles Herpes zoster- aka shingles Has painful skin eruptions that start with an inflamed nerve Has painful skin eruptions that start with an inflamed nerve Caused by the chickenpox virus that remains dormant in a nerve and is reactivated years later Caused by the chickenpox virus that remains dormant in a nerve and is reactivated years later

36 Infectious mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis Caused by Epstein-Barr virus Caused by Epstein-Barr virus Has fever, repeated sore throats and enlarged lymph nodes Has fever, repeated sore throats and enlarged lymph nodes Rabies Rabies Transmitted to humans from infected animals Transmitted to humans from infected animals

37 Rubella-aka 3 day measles Rubella-aka 3 day measles Characterized by fever and a diffuse, fine red rash Characterized by fever and a diffuse, fine red rash Causes abnormalities in unborn fetus if mother has during early pregnancy Causes abnormalities in unborn fetus if mother has during early pregnancy

38 Medications Antibiotic- chemical that can slow growth or kill bacteria Antibiotic- chemical that can slow growth or kill bacteria Antiviral- treats viral infections or provides temporary immunity Antiviral- treats viral infections or provides temporary immunity

39 Oncology The study of the prevention, causes and treatment of tumors and cancer. The study of the prevention, causes and treatment of tumors and cancer. Tumor- new and abnormal tissue formation Tumor- new and abnormal tissue formation

40 Benign- not recurring or malignant Benign- not recurring or malignant Can cause problems by putting pressure on adjacent structures Can cause problems by putting pressure on adjacent structures

41 Malignant- harmful, tending to spread, becoming worse and life threatening. Can spread to distant body sites Malignant- harmful, tending to spread, becoming worse and life threatening. Can spread to distant body sites Metastasis- a new cancer site that results from the spreading process. May be in the same body system or in another body system farther away Metastasis- a new cancer site that results from the spreading process. May be in the same body system or in another body system farther away

42 Carcinoma- a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue Carcinoma- a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue covers internal and external surfaces of body Epithelial tissue covers internal and external surfaces of body Can infiltrate and produce metastases Can infiltrate and produce metastases

43 Sarcoma- a malignant tumor that comes from connective tissue. Sarcoma- a malignant tumor that comes from connective tissue. Can affect bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscles, and spleen Can affect bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscles, and spleen

44 Lymphoma- malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system Lymphoma- malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system Hodgkin’s lymphoma- Reed-Sternberg cells are present Hodgkin’s lymphoma- Reed-Sternberg cells are present

45 Breast Cancer Malignant tumor that develops from cells of the breast and may spread to adjacent lymph nodes Malignant tumor that develops from cells of the breast and may spread to adjacent lymph nodes Invasive ductal carcinoma- starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of the duct and invades the fatty breast tissue. Majority of breast cancers. Invasive ductal carcinoma- starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of the duct and invades the fatty breast tissue. Majority of breast cancers.

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47 Staging of Breast Cancer Stage 1- cancer is less than 2 cm and has not spread Stage 1- cancer is less than 2 cm and has not spread Stage 2- any of the following are true Stage 2- any of the following are true Cancer is less than 2 cm but has spread to axillary lymph nodes Cancer is less than 2 cm but has spread to axillary lymph nodes Cancer is between 2-5 cm and may or may not have spread lymph nodes Cancer is between 2-5 cm and may or may not have spread lymph nodes Cancer is larger than 5 cm but has not spread to lymph nodes Cancer is larger than 5 cm but has not spread to lymph nodes

48 Stage 3- one of the following is true Stage 3- one of the following is true Cancer is <5 cm and has spread to axillary lymph nodes and the lymph nodes are attached to each other or other structures Cancer is <5 cm and has spread to axillary lymph nodes and the lymph nodes are attached to each other or other structures Cancer is >5 cm and has spread to axillary lymph nodes Cancer is >5 cm and has spread to axillary lymph nodes

49 Stage 4 Stage 4 Cancer has spread to other organs of the body. Usually bones, lungs, liver or brain Cancer has spread to other organs of the body. Usually bones, lungs, liver or brain

50 Treatment Surgery- removal of the malignant tumor and some surrounding tissue Surgery- removal of the malignant tumor and some surrounding tissue Chemotherapy- use of chemical agents and drugs to destroy malignant cells Chemotherapy- use of chemical agents and drugs to destroy malignant cells Radiation Therapy- uses x-rays to kill cancer cells and not target healthy cells Radiation Therapy- uses x-rays to kill cancer cells and not target healthy cells Brachytherapy- uses radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated Brachytherapy- uses radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated


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