Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 HEALTH & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AOS 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT 3 HEALTH & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AOS 2 Promoting Health in Australia
2 UNIT 3 AOS 2 – Promoting health in Australia In this area of study students examine different models of health and health promotion. They investigate the roles and responsibilities of governments in addressing health needs and promoting health for all through the provision of a national health system and health promotion initiatives.Students examine the role of government and non-government organisations in providing programs and support for the promotion of healthy eating.
3 UNIT 3 AOS 2 – Promoting health in Australia KEY KNOWLEDGEModels of health and health promotion including:Biomedical model of healthSocial model of healthThe Ottawa Charter for Health PromotionKEY SKILLSAnalyse the different approaches to health and health promotion.
4 UNIT 3 AOS 2 – Promoting health in Australia Key questionsWhat is the biomedical model of health?What is the social model of health?What is the focus of each model?What are the advantages and disadvantages of each model?Why is the biomedical model more expensive?Why is it important to have both the biomedical model and the social model of health if we are to improve health status?What are the differences between the two models?Where does the Ottawa Charter fit in here?What is health promotion?The Ottawa Charter - What are the three basic strategies for health promotion which are enabling, mediating, and advocacy.
5 APPROACHES TO HEALTH CARE As the understanding of health status and itscontributing determinants have developed overmany years, so have the approaches intended toimprove health.In order to assess the adequacy andeffectiveness of Australia’s health care systemit’s important to understand the nature and roleof each approach to health care
6 Approaches to health care in Australia Australia’s health care systemSocial modelHealth promotion – Ottawa charterBiomedical model
7 APPROACHES TO HEALTH CARE ❶ Why is it important to have an understanding of the nature and role of different approaches to health care?It is necessary to have an understanding of the different approaches to health care so we can assess the adequacy and effectiveness of Australia’s health system.
8 Approaches to health care in Australia Biomedical Model of Health
9 THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH Definition of the Biomedical Model of Health (Study Design)‘Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practiced by doctors and/or health professionals and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease.’
10 Biomedical Model❷The following questions relate to the biomedical model of health 1. Outline what the biomedical model involves.The biomedical model involves trying to diagnose and treat illness and conditions once symptoms are present.2. What does it centre around and give some examples?The biomedical model centres around doctors, health professionals and hospitals who administer treatment Examples: surgery, medication and x-rays
11 Biomedical Model❷ 3. Who is the focus of the biomedical model of health and what is it attempting to achieve?Individuals are the focus in this model, which concentrates on disease, illness and disability and attempts to return physical health of the person to a pre-illness state
12 Biomedical Model❷ 4. Explain the statement, “this form of intervention focuses on the biological determinants of health”.The biomedical model does not concentrate on the reasons for illness but centres around the condition itself and the treatment is considered the solution.The biological determinants are addressed in thismodel – factors relating to the body that impacton health.Example: Diabetes.The doctor would concentrate on:Blood sugar levelsCholesterol levelsTreatment: Insulin injections
13 APPROACHES TO HEALTH CARE ❷ 5. Why is medical science and technologies pivotal in the biomedical model of health? Medical science is pivotal to the biomedical model as technologies are used in the treatment and diagnosis of illness. There is pressure to accurately diagnose illness and find cures. Many medical sciences and technologies have occurred because of the biomedical model
14 THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH Examples include the use of:Medical technologies (eg: xrays, ultrasounds etc)Laboratory testingProfessional health workers (eg: Doctors, Nurses etc)
15 THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH Medication (eg: antibiotics)HospitalisationSurgeryDiagnosis
16 FEATURES of THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH It involves trying to diagnose and treat illnesses and conditions once symptoms are present.It centres around doctors, health professionals and hospitals, who administer treatment.Focuses on INDIVIDUALSConcentrates on disease, illness or disabilityAttempts to return the physical health of the person to a pre-illness state.
17 FEATURES of THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH 6. The reasons for illness are not the centre of the biomedical model; rather the condition itself is the focus and treatments are considered the solution 7. This form of intervention focuses on biological determinants (behavioural and social generally excluded) 8. Medical science and technologies are central in the biomedical model 9. The biomedical model has played a large role in prolonging life expectancy in Australia 11. It receives the majority of health care funding
18 Advantages and Disadvantages of the BMH It creates advances in technology and researchMany common problems can now be effectively treatedExtends Life ExpectancyImproves quality of lifeIt relies on professional health workers and technology (-costly $)Not every condition can be treatedDoes NOT promote good healthIt is very expensive – is it affordable?The broader determinants of health are neglected
19 Key skills – exam practice There are many biomedical approaches to health and dental care.Identify one biomedical approach to health care and explain how it could assist in the maintenance of dental health in children VCAA: Written exam 2003
20 Key skills – exam practice There are many biomedical approaches to health and dental care.Identify one biomedical approach to health care and explain how it could assist in the maintenance of dental health in children VCAA: Written exam 2003One mark was available for naming an appropriate biomedical approach to health care and one mark for the explanation of how it could assist in the maintenance of dental health in children. One student wrote:One biomedical approach to health care in association with dental health in children would be having fillings put in the child’ tooth or teeth when there are holes found. This assists in the maintenance of dental health of children as it allows the holes in the teeth to be filled, ensuring that the teeth will be safe from holes becoming any bigger which will ensure there are less of a chance of there becoming more serious dental problems.Key skills – exam practice
22 THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Definition: A conceptual framework which improvements in health and well-being are achieved by directing efforts towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health.The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed.VCAA Study Design P 36
23 THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH 2. Why was the social model of health developed in the late 1970’s – 80’s It was created in response to increasing rates of lifestyle-related diseases, especially CVD.The Social Model of Health is an approach to health that attempts to address the broader influences of health rather than disease and injury
24 THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH The Social Model of Health is based on an understanding that, in order for health to improve the social, economic and environmental factors need to be addressed.3. Outline the importance of factors such as SES, access to health care and social connectedness in bringing about improved health status.If these determinants are addressed, many diseases and illnesses can be prevented.Policies, education and health promotion activities are key aspects of the social model of health.
25 Relationship between the determinants of health and health status SocialEconomicEnvironmentalRURAL AND REMOTESOCIAL EXCLUSIONACCESS TO HEALTH CAREFOOD SECURITYSTRESSMEDIAPOVERTYEARLY LIFE EXPERIENCESSESUNEMPLOYMENTEDUCATIONINCOMEPOLLUTIONSANITATIONSAFE WATERWORK PLACE SAFETYNEIGHBOURHOOD SAFETYBehaviouralTOBACCOPHYSICALALCOHOLDRIG USESUN PROTECTIONACTIVITYIf all these causes can be addressed many diseases and illnesses can be prevented altogether
26 Advantages and Disadvantages of the SMH Addresses the broader determinants of healthFocuses on factors such as SES, social exclusion, access to health care. These impact significantly on the health of individuals and populationsIf causes of poor health can be addressed many diseases and illnesses can be preventedFocuses on community groups rather than individual – community is more effectiveNot everyone has access to education, health promotion activitiesDoesn’t address ALL causes of illnessThe SMH may be adopted, however someone may get the diseaseStill rely on BMH to treat a diseaseCannot prevent, treat or cure all diseases and illnesses
28 The Social Model of Health AcronymiIntersectorial CollaborationbBroader Determinants of health are addressedeEmpowers individuals and communitiesaActs to enable access to appropriate and affordable health carerReduce social inequities
29 Description of the principles of the SMH 5 Key principles of the Social Model of HealthPrincipleDescription of the principles of the SMHiIntersectorial CollaborationThe broader determinants of health must be addressed. Social factors – gender, culture, SES, race, location, physical environment - these must be addressed to improve health status and health outcomes
30 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Involves Inter- sectorial CollaborationOnly by involving all interested and concerned groups can the social determinants be adequately addressedThe social and environmental determinants of health cannot be addressed by the health sector aloneCollaborationorWorking together
31 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Involves Inter- sectorial CollaborationEmployment, EducationFinanceSocial SecurityEnvironmentSanitationDeterminants of healthGovernment departmentsNon-government organisationsPrivate sectorHealth sectorVic HealthNutrition AustraliaBeyondBlueHospitalsDoctorsResearchMedicarePBSWater supplyEnergy supplyTransportManufacturers
32 5 Key principles of the Social Model of Health Description of the principles of the SMHBBroader Determinants of health are addressedHealth is determined by a broad range of social, environmental and economic factors and not just biomedical factors. Differences in health status and health outcomes are linked to social factors including gender, culture, race and ethnicity, SES, working conditions, unemployment, housing, location and physical environment
33 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Addresses the Broader Determinants of healthAddressing the broader determinant of health is a key aspect of the social model of health.Behavioural DeterminantsThese need to be addressed to improve healthThese are often influenced by other broader determinants of health such as:Social determinantsEconomic determinantsEnvironmental determinantsGender: Culture: Race:EthnicitySES: Unemployment: working conditionsLocation: Physical environment: housing
34 5 Key principles of the Social Model of Health Description of the principles of the SMHEEmpowers individuals and communitiesEmpowering individuals and communities with health knowledge and skills means that they are in a position to make positive changes to their health
35 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Empowers individuals and communitiesEmpowering individuals and communities with health knowledge and skills means that they are in a position to make positive changes to their healthPeople have the right to participate in decision-making about their health and to access skills and resources they need to change factors which influence their health.
36 5 Key principles of the Social Model of Health Description of the principles of the SMHAActs to enable access to appropriate and affordable health careHealth services should be affordable and available according to people’s needs. Health information should be available to all in accessible and appropriate formats
37 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Acts to enable access to health careThe social model of health acts to enable all people to have access to appropriate health care regardless of their social situationHealth services should be affordable and available according to people’s needs. Health information should be available to all in accessible and appropriate formats
38 5 Key principles of the Social Model of Health Description of the principles of the SMHRReduce social inequitiesEquity is a key principle for health service delivery. The SMH acts to reduce inequities that are related to factors such as gender, culture, race, SES, location and physical environment.
39 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Acts to Reduce Social InequitiesThe social model of health aims to promote equity for all people and to achieve this, the social determinants be adequately addressedGender,Culture,Race,Socioeconomic Status,LocationPhysical Environment.
40 APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH TO A HELATH PROMOTION PROGRAM Hungry for victory - Rumbalara Football and Netball Club The overall purpose of this program was to promote healthy eatingin the context of improving sporting performance. This program targeteda group of 40 footballers at the Rumbalara Football and Netball Clubin the under-17 years and under-14 years competitions, who took part ina nutrition program. This involved a series of nutrition workshops, a mentoringprogram for younger players and a breakfast program where players andopposition teams were provided with a healthy breakfast prior to matches.Four nutrition workshops were also conducted where participants receivedinformation about nutrition and were encouraged to tailor their eating habitstowards maximising performance on the football field. Older players wereencouraged to bring players along to have a healthy breakfast in order topass on knowledge and encourage positive behaviour. The program ran forthe duration of the 2006 football season. Various resources were providedsuch as T-shirts and drink bottles bearing the hungry for victory logo.The health promotion program was community-directed, state-funded andinvolved university researchers. It was conducted within the Koori communityof the Goulburn-Murray Region of Northern Victoria
41 APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH TO A HELATH PROMOTION PROGRAM Case Study “Feedin' the mob”Feedin' the mob is a nutrition, physical activity and healthy lifestyle project for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the City of Whittlesea Victoria.Based at Plenty Valley Community Health, Feedin' the mob is funded by the Federal Government and supported by Council through its Healthy communities initiative.Feedin' the mob gets the community involved in activities that draw on local culture to teach the benefits of healthy eating and lifestyle.The target audience are teenagers, parents and carers, people living with chronic illness and Elders. The project includes a community garden, cooking classes and information-sharing about chronic disease prevention.
42 Key skills – exam practice Question 7Outline two major characteristics of the biomedical model of health.2 marksVCAA: Written exam 2010
43 Question 3The following information is about the program LEAD (Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity).Greater Shepparton City Council has been awarded this program by the Victorian HealthPromotion Foundation (VicHealth) aimed at improving community acceptance of culturaldiversity. The VicHealth Chief Executive Officer said that communities that support cultural diversity have been found to have better health outcomes.The focus is on the community as a whole, not just on people from migrant, refugee andAboriginal communities affected directly by discrimination or racism.The responses will include a range of different approaches such as communications,community development, and supporting organisations with training and other resources.Working across settings such as education, employment, and sport and recreation, the LEAD program plans to support local organisations to• ensure that environments are safe and welcoming for people from a range of culturalbackgrounds• increase understanding and empathy among different community groups• ensure fairer outcomes for all.A goal is to identify what works when it comes to reducing discrimination and promotingdiversity at the local level.Adapted from:
44 6 marks 1. 2. VCAA: Written exam 2010 Describe two principles of the social model of health and explain how they are evident in this program.1.2.6 marksVCAA: Written exam 2010
45 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION The principle of the Ottawa Charter was founder on the Social Model of HealthThe Ottawa Charter outlines guidelines to help organisations and key stakeholders incorporate health promotion ideas into strategies, policies and campaigns.The Ottawa Charter was adopted by Australia as a means of promoting health
46 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION The Ottawa Charter: an approach to health development by the WHO which attempts to reduce the inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the Social Model of Health and defines health promotion as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve their health. The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion which are enabling, advocacy and mediating. (study design)
47 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Focuses on prevention rather than cureUses the causes of disease as the starting point rather than diseases themselves.
48 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION The Ottawa Charter identifies certain prerequisites or basic conditions and resources that must be available if any gains in health are to occur.PeaceEducationStable ecosystemOur ecosystem provides resources for health – water, air, food – balance between the landscape and plants/animasShelterFoodSocial justice and equityRefers to all people being valued and receiving fair treatmentIncomeSustainable resourcesResources such as food, water, fish, oil, timber. These must cause little or no damage to the environment - able to continue for a long time
49 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION The Ottawa Charter for health promotion is a documentor tool used by different organisations to improve health in the community.There are two parts to this tool that work side by sideto improve health. Part 1. Three basic strategies that are supported bythe 5 priority areasPart 2. The 5 priority or action areasThree (3) basic strategiesFive (5) priority or action areasAdvocacyMediatingEnablingBuilding Healthy Public PolicyCreate Supportive Environments Strengthen Community ActionDevelop Personal SkillsReorient Health Services
50 The Ottawa Charter for health promotion identifies three basic strategies: Basic strategies for health promotionDescription1. AdvocacyInvolves speaking up for groups to gain support for a particular issue or concern.some groups are able to advocate (“stick up for themselves”), other groups may need people to speak on their behalf.Examples:Mass media campaignsLobbying politiciansOrganising pressure groups
51 The Ottawa Charter for health promotion identifies three basic strategies: Basic strategies for health promotionDescription2. MediatingMany groups in the community have their own interests and ideas on a particular health issue.Conflict can occur. To resolve the conflict reconciliation may be needed. This is where intersectorial collaboration takes place. Different groups work together to resolve the conflict.Health promotion requires the coordinated action by all levels of government, the health sector, non-government organisations, industry and media
52 The Ottawa Charter for health promotion identifies three basic strategies: StrategyDescription3. EnablingThis approach to health care cannot be enforced upon the individual.Enabling provides the individual with the skills to take actions to promote or protect healthEnabling is the process by which people gain more control over factors that influence their health; that is empowering individuals or groups to take action to promote or protect their healthExamples:Providing access to informationDeveloping skills through educationInstil motivation to improve health
53 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION The Ottawa Charter sets out five priority or action areas that should be taken into account when devising health promotion initiativesB - badBuilding Healthy Public PolicyC - catsCreate Supportive EnvironmentsS - smellStrengthen Community ActionD - deadDevelop Personal SkillsR - ratsReorient Health Services
54 Complete the following questions What is the relationship between the Social Model of Health and the Ottawa Charter?Describe what is meant by health promotion.The Ottawa Charter identifies certain prerequisites or basic conditions and resources that must be available if any gains in health are to occur. Identify 4 of these basic conditionsOutline the 5 priority areas of the Ottawa Charter. Select one and explain what is meant by the priority area.
55 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Priority or Action area 1B - badBuilding Health Public PolicyRelates directly to decisions made by governments in relation to laws and policies that directly affect healthhealth sector • local councils - recreationwork place policies • housing and transportschool policiesExamples:healthier environments – banning smokinginfluence behaviour – compulsory wearing of seat beltswearing hats during play at schoolremoving the GST on unprocessed foods
56 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Priority or Action Area 2C - catsCreate Supportive EnvironmentsA supportive environment is one that promotes health and assists people in making healthy lifestyle choices. Its aim is to provide a:Healthy Physical Environment:●Where we work, live, go to school. EG Providing shaded areas in schools -● Protect the physical environment – investing in sustainable energy productionHealthy Social Environment:●Help and support to others. EG Quitline – support to smokers wanting to quit● Help and support from others● Fulfilling social life
57 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Action area 3S - smellStrengthen Community Action● This action area is centred around the community working together to achieve a common goal● The more people working together towards a common goal, the greater the chance of success.● Communities work together to identify and set health priorities, and plan and implement strategies to achieve better healthExample: Government immunisation scheme higher immunisation ratesDoctorsMediaSchoolsParents
58 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Priority or Action Area 4D - deadDevelop Personal Skills● Education is the key aspect of this priority area● People gain knowledge and skills necessary to make decisions that will affect their health● People who have knowledge and life skills have greater control over their lives and choices to enhance healthExamples:Talking to people to resolve conflict rather than using violence
59 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Priority or Action Area 5R - ratsReorient Health Services● Movement away from the biomedical model to one that promotes health and prevents ill health+● Includes all members of the communityDoctors + hospitals + individuals + community groups + health professionals + government departments● Examples :Healthy eating to reduce impact of CVD rather than surgeryPhysical activity to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes
60 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Priority or Action Area 5R - ratsReorient Health Services● A health system that reflects the Social Model of Health must therefore address all the determinants of health, not just diseaseThis requires a shift towards health promotion (The process of enabling people to increase control over,and to improve their health) Doctors take on a role of educator or provide preventive health care messages not just curative care
61 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION For each of the statements listed below indicate which of the 5 priority or action areas of the Ottawa Charter are represented.Legislation that bans smoking in public placesQUIT campaigns advertising on billboards, stickers and TVPrograms made available to school students about how to practice safe sexIntroduction of condom vending machines in public placesOccupational health and safety requirements for building sitesErecting sun shade at local swimming pools and sporting venuesProvision of palliative care and support for AIDS sufferersTaxation subsides for sunscreenLearning how to detect changes in moles on your skinDevelopment of a National Policy on ATSI healthProviding bike tracks in the local communityEstablishing support groups for heart attack sufferersGP’s providing information on the risk factors for CVD
62 THE OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION Select one of the followingExplain how the following priority or action areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion could be applied to address the issue of obesity in the Australian population.Building Healthy Public PolicyDeveloping personal skillsRe-orient health services2. Explain how the following priority or action areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion could be applied to address the issue of injury due to car crashesCreating supportive EnvironmentStrengthening community action
63 Explain how the five priority or action areas of the Ottawa Charter could be applied to obesity Building Health Public PolicyThe State Government passes a law that all children enrolled in school must participate in 30 minutes of exercise per dayCreating supportive environmentsLocal councils develop recreational facilities such as running tracks, ovals and bike tracks to encourage people to engage in physical activityStrengthening community actionInterested groups such as schools, parents, local councils and sporting groups develop programs for children to participate in sporting activities throughout the weekDeveloping personal skillsPrograms in schools that inform students of the importance of physical activity and balanced diet to reduce the incidence of obesityRe-orient health servicesLocal doctor working with parents to encourage them to get their children engaged in physical activity.