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1 Obchodní akademie, Ostrava-Poruba, příspěvková organizace
Obchodní akademie, Ostrava-Poruba, příspěvková organizace Vzdělávací materiál/DUM VY_32-INOVACE_05C/ Great Britain / Education Autor Mgr. Jana Kondeková Období vytvoření Srpen 2013 Ročník/věková kategorie 4. ročník / let Vyučovací předmět/klíčová slova Great Britain / Education Anotace Práce slouží k procvičení reálií s tématikou Great Britain/Education jako příprava k maturitní zkoušce.

2 Great Britain Part Seventeen Education

3 Introducation to Education
British children are required by law to have an education until they are 16 years old. Education is compulsory, but school is not,children are not required to attend school. They could be educated at home. Education is free for all children from 5 to 16, religious education from 5 to 18. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16, This can be provided by state schools, independent schools, or homeschooling.

4 Curriculum The statutory curriculum for maintained schools consists of
The National Curriculum (ages 5-16) Religious Education (ages 5-18) Sex Education (ages 11-18) The current National Curriculum is set out in the primary National Curriculum until 2014 and secondary National Curriculum until 2014 sections. Further information is available on the 2014 National Curriculum page.

5 1996 Education Act of the UK Section 7 of the 1996 Education Act states: "The parent of every child of compulsory school age shall cause him to receive efficient full-time education suitable- (a) to his age, ability and aptitude, and  (b) to any special educational needs he may have, either by regular attendance at school or otherwise."

6 Education in the United Kingdom
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter  with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England, and the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive  are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

7 Education in the United Kingdom
Shool is compulsory for children and young people between the ages 5 and 16. Some of them receive nursery education. The great majority of parents send their children to state schools, where education and equipment are completely free. Other children are sent into independent schools „public school“. These schools are usually boarding. The subjects taught at schools are given by National Curriculum ( legislation passed in 1989 – gives greater responsibility to schools and colleges and gives parents more posibilities to choose the school ).

8 Primary and Secondary Education
Primary school is for children from 5 to 11 and the teachers are mainly woman. Secondary school is for young people between the age of 11 and 16. ( In some areas there are middle schools (age 9–13 )). There are several types of secondary schools. The most of pupils attend comprehesive ones. Grammar schools offer an academic education. At the age of 16 students take the principal examinations GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education. Those who don't want to study more take GCE. People who want to continue study take GCSE at O level (ordinary). Later a new exam Advanced Supplementary (AS) was introduced.

9 Higher Education  Britain has 47 universities (including the open universities ). The most famous and the oldest ones in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge. They date from the 12th and 13th centuries. The Scottish universities Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh date from 14th and 15th centuries.

10 University Courses University courses last usually over 3 to 4 years.
Students have to pay for courses, food and accomodation. They receive loans and they have to pay back when they start to work. Undergraduates are the students who study for a degree of Bachelor. The title is put after the name. Then students are gaduates and they can study further to get degree of Master – they must work on thesis. The degree of Philosophy is given only for a thesis which originally contributes to human knowledge.

11 Further Education It is for people over 16.
They take courses up to GCE A level standard. This courses are taught at colleges of further education. Most of them are vocational (technical, commercial). Many students attend schools in the evening or they are released from employment.

12 Education in England Education in England is overseen (dohlíží) by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a local level.

13 The Education System The education system is divided into early years (ages 3–4), primary education (ages 4–11), secondary education (ages 11–18) and tertiary education (ages 18+). Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 17 (from 2013, and up to 18 from 2015). Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further two years (sixth form), leading most typically to A-level qualifications, although other qualifications and courses exist, including Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications, the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U. The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. 

14 The Education System The change takes effect in 2013 for 16-year-olds and 2015 for 17-year-olds. State-provided schooling and sixth form education is paid for by taxes. England also has a tradition of independent schooling, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means.

15 The Education System Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state via tuition fees (školné), which cost up to £9,000 per academic year for English, Welsh  and EU students.

16 The Education System The school year begins on 1 September.
State-run schools and colleges are financed through national taxation, and take pupils free of charge between the ages of 3 and 18. The schools may levy charges for activities such as swimming, theatre visits and field trips, provided the charges are voluntary, thus ensuring that those who cannot afford to pay are allowed to participate in such events. Approximately 93% of English schoolchildren attend such schools.

17 School Subjects All maintained schools in England are required to follow the National Curriculum which is made up of twelve subjects. The core subjects—English, Mathematics and Science —are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16. A range of other subjects, known as foundation subjects, are compulsory at one or more Key Stages: Art & Design Citizenship Design & Technology Geography History Information & Communication Technology Modern Foreign Languages Music Physical Education

18 Maintained school Almost all state-funded schools in England are maintained schools, which receive their funding (financování) from local authorities. Since 1998, there have been six main types of maintained school in England: Community schools, Voluntary Controlled schools, Voluntary Aided schools, Foundation schools, Academy schools, Free schools

19 Secondary Schools English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive (všeobecné), except in a few areas that retain (udržují) a form of the previous selective system (the Tripartite System), with students selected for grammar school by the eleven plus exam. 

20 Independent Schools Approximately 7% of school children in England attend privately run fee-paying independent schools rising to 18% for sixth form students. Some independent schools for year olds are known for historical reasons as 'public schools' and for 8-13 year olds as 'prep schools'. Some schools offer scholarships for those with particular skills or aptitudes, or bursaries (stipendia) to allow students from less financially well-off families to attend. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum, and their teachers are not required or regulated by law to have official teaching qualifications.

21 Education by means other than schooling
The Education Act requires parents to ensure (zajistit) their children are educated either by attending school or alternative means. Small but increasing numbers of parents are choosing to educate their children by means other than schooling. This style of education is often referred to as Elective Home Education. The education can take a variety of forms, ranging from homeschooling,  where a school-style curriculum is followed at home, to unschooling, where any semblance of structure in the educational provision is abandoned.

22 A Young Homeschool Student
It is estimated (odhaduje se) that there are now over 50,000 and perhaps as many as 150,000 children between the ages of 5 and 16 who are educated at home in England and Wales. There is every indication(vše nasvědčuje) that this number is growing. Homeschooling. (accessed Aug 23, 2013).

23 Further Education Students at both state schools and independent schools typically take GCSE examinations, which mark the end of compulsory education. Above school-leaving age, the independent and state sectors are similarly structured. In the 16–18 age group, sixth form education is not compulsory at present, although mandatory education until the age of 18 is to be phased in under the Education and Skills Act 2008. This will take effect for 16-year-olds in 2013, and for 17-year-olds in 2015. Students will typically study in the sixth form of a school, in a separate sixth form college, or in a further education college. These courses can also be studied by adults over 18. This sector is referred to as Further Education. Some students will be encouraged to study Key Skills in Communication, Application of Number, and Information Technology at this time

24 Higher Education Students normally enter university from age 18 onwards (a dále) , and study for an academic degree. The typical first degree offered at English universities is the bachelor's degree, and usually lasts for three years.  Many institutions now offer an undergraduate master's degree as a first degree, which typically lasts for four years. During a first degree students are known as undergraduates.

25 Postgraduate Education
Students who have completed a first degree  are eligible to undertake a postgraduate degree, which might be a: Master's degree (typically taken in one year, though research-based master's degrees may last for two) Doctorate (typically taken in three years) Postgraduate education is not automatically financed by the state, and so admissions are highly competitive.

26 Weekday Preschool in Knollwood
Knollwood Preschool. (accessed Aug 23, 2013).

27 School Uniforms in England
School uniforms in England were first introduced on a large scale during the reign of King Henry VIII. The uniforms of the time were referred as "bluecoats", as they consisted of long trench-coat-style jackets dyed blue. Blue was the cheapest available dye and showed humility among all children. The first school to introduce this uniform was Christ's Hospital and it is the oldest uniform of any school. Today, the Government believes that school uniforms play a valuable role in contributing to the ethos of schools.

28 School Uniforms in England
The Department for Children, Schools and Families strongly encourages schools to have a uniform as it can instil pride; support positive behaviour and discipline; encourage identity with, and support for, school ethos; ensure pupils of all races and backgrounds feel welcome; protect children from social pressures to dress in a particular way and promote good relations between different groups of pupils. School uniforms are required to be fair for both genders, be available at a reasonably low cost and tolerate religious freedoms e.g. allowing Sikhs to wear turbans.

29 Comprehensive School Uniforms
Typical uniform of an English comprehensive school. School uniforms in England. (accessed Aug 23, 2013).

30 Education in Wales Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in theUnite Kingdom. For example, a significant minority of students all over Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh : in 2008/09, 22 per cent of classes in maintained primary schools used Welsh as the soleor main medium of instruction. Welsh medium education is available to all age groups through nurseries, schools, colleges and universities and in adult education; lessons in the language itself are compulsory for all pupils until the age of 16.

31 Primary Education In 2008 a unique new curriculum - the Foundation phase - was rolled out to all schools in Wales. It began for 3- to 4-year-olds and by 2011 is in place for 3- to 7-year-olds. It is based on experiential learning, in small groups, with a teacher ratio of 1:8 for the youngest ages. It has been acclaimed as 'one of the most significant acts of the Welsh government since it was formed.

32 Curriculum The curriculum will focus on experiential learning, active involvement and developing each child’s: Skills and understanding; Personal, social, emotional, physical and intellectual well being so as to develop the whole child; Positive attitudes to learning so that they enjoy it and want to continue; Self-esteem and self-confidence to experiment, investigate, learn new things and form new relationships; Creative, expressive and observational skills to encourage their development as individuals with different ways of responding to experiences;

33 Secondary Education Pupils in secondary schools take part in the compulsory GCSE and the non-compulsory A-level qualifications at age 16 and 18.

34 Further Education Further education (FE) includes full- and part-time learning for people over compulsory school age, excluding higher education.  FE and publicly funded training in Wales is provided by 24 FE institutions and a range of public, private and voluntary sector training providers, such as the Workers' Educational Association. Colleges vary in size and mission, and include general FE, tertiary and specialist institutions, including one Roman Catholic Sixth Form College and a residential adult education college.

35 Higher Education Students normally enter higher education (HE) from 18. All undergraduate education is largely state-financed and students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance. The state does not control syllabi, but it does influence admission procedures and monitors standards through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales. The typical first degree offered at Welsh universities is the Bachelor's degree, taking three years to complete full-time.  Some institutions offer an undergraduate Master's degree as a first degree, typically lasting four years. 

36 The Main Building of Cardiff University
Cardiff University is a research university located inCardiff,  Wales. The University is composed of three colleges: Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences; Biomedical and Life Sciences; and Physical Sciences and Engineering. Education in Wales. (accessed Aug 23, 2013)

37 Education in Scotland Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom. The Scotland Act 1998 gives the Scottish Parliament legislative control over all education matters, and the Education (Scotland) Act 1980 is the principal legislation governing education in Scotland. Traditionally, the Scottish system at secondary school level has emphasised breadth across a range of subjects.

38 Education in Scotland Following this, Scottish universities generally have courses a year longer (typically 4 years) than their counterparts elsewhere in the UK, though it is often possible for students to take more advanced specialised exams and join the courses at the second year. One unique aspect is that the ancient universities of Scotland issue a Master of Arts as the first degree in humanities.

39 Education in Scotland State schools are owned and operated by the local authorities which act as Education Authorities, and the compulsory phase is divided into primary school and secondary school  (often called high school). Schools are supported in delivering learning and teaching by Education Scotland. There are also private schools across the country, although the distribution is uneven with such schools in 22 of the 32 Local Authority areas.

40 Education in Scotland Children start primary school aged between 4½ and 5 Pupils remain at primary school for seven years. Then aged eleven or twelve, they start secondary school for a compulsory four years with the following two years being optional. In Scotland, pupils sit Standard Grade or Intermediate exams at the age of fifteen/sixteen, for normally eight subjects including compulsory exams in English, Mathematics, a Science subject (Physics, Biology or Chemistry) and a Social Subject (Geography, History or Modern Studies).

41 Education in Scotland A small number of students at certain private, independent schools  may follow the English systém and study towards GCSE instead of Standard Grades, and towards A and AS-Levels instead of Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams. Secondary school naming High Schools, Academies, Secondary Schools, Junior High Schools.

42 Universities University of Aberdeen is located in Aberdeen.
University of Abertay Dundee is located in Dundee. University of Dundee is located in Dundee and also has a campus in Kirkcaldy. University of Edinburgh is located in Edinburgh. Edinburgh Napier University is located in Edinburgh. University of Glasgow is located in Glasgow but also has a campus in Dumfries. Glasgow Caledonian University is located in Glasgow. Glasgow School of Art is located in Glasgow. Heriot-Watt University is based in Edinburgh but also has campuses in Dubai , Galashiels, Malaysia and Orkney.

43 Education in Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland differs from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, though it is more similar to that used in Wales than it is to Scotland. A child's age on 1 July determines the point of entry into the relevant stage of education unlike England and Wales where it is the 1 September. Northern Ireland's results at GCSE and A-Level are consistently top in the UK. At A-Level, one third of students in Northern Ireland achieved A grades in 2007, which is a higher proportion than in England and Wales.

44 Education in Northern Ireland
School years Primary education Primary school Foundation Stage Year 1, age 4 to 5 (equivalent to Reception in England and Wales) Year 2, age 5 to 6 Key Stage 1 Year 3, age 6 to 7 Year 4, age 7 to 8 Key Stage 2 Year 5, age 8 to 9 Year 6, age 9 to 10 Year 7, age 10 to 11

45 Education in Northern Ireland
Secondary education Secondary school or grammar school Key Stage 3 Year 8, age 11 to 12 (equivalent to Year 7 in England and Wales) Year 9, age 12 to 13 Year 10, age 13 to 14 Key Stage 4 Year 11, age 14 to 15 Year 12, age 15 to 16 (GCSE examinations) Secondary school, grammar school, or further education college Sixth form Year 13, age 16 to 17 (AS-level  examinations) Year 14, age 17 to 18 (A-levels (A2))

46 Biography BRENDLOVÁ, S. Basic Facts on English-Speaking Countries. Fraus, ISBN SHEERIN, S. Spotlight on Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN VESELÝ, K. The English Speaking Countries. SPN, 1983.

47 The End of Part Seventeen
Thank You for Your Attention. Mgr. Jana Kondeková

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