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The Social Gospel (Page 521)

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1 The Social Gospel (Page 521)
Popularized during the early 1900’s It integrated Christian ethics into Social difficulties Failed to impact the urban reform movement It brought a moral commitment to help the Lower Class citizens to Progressivism

2 W.E.B. DuBois (Pages ) DuBois opposed Booker T. Washington’s philosophy DuBois believed African Americans should accept nothing but full civil rights and a university education In 1905 DuBois started the Niagara Movement with his supporters on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls Four years later in 1909 he created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in conjugation with white progressives

3 Theodore Roosevelt (Page 539-540)
Became youngest president ever when William McKinley was assassinated in September of 1901 He became a supporter of moderate change He wanted to regulate trusts but not destroy them He filed more than 40 antitrust suits during his presidency The Square Deal Roosevelt’s ideal which attempted to provide everyone with an equal “Square” deal

4 William Howard Taft (Page 543-544)
Roosevelt’s handpicked successor Became president in 1909 Signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff into law Barely lowered the tariff rates which angered progressives Taft refused to do what Roosevelt wanted Split the Republican Party Roosevelt created the Bull Moose Party and ran for President again against Taft Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) was elected

5 Roosevelt Corollary (Pages 554-555)
In 1904 Roosevelt created a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine It stated the US had the right to intervene in Latin American countries domestic affairs if they could not govern themselves in addition to the right to oppose European involvement in the Western Hemisphere

6 106. Panama Canal The Panama Canal is widely considered the most celebrated foreign policy accomplishment of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency. Roosevelt dispatched secretary of state, John Hay, to negotiate an agreement with Colombian diplomats for the construction of the canal. When the Colombian’s began demanding more money than Roosevelt was willing to pay, the United States helped finance and organize a Panamanian revolution. The new Panamanian government hastily agreed to Roosevelt’s terms. The Panama canal quickly paid for itself and became a very lucrative asset for the US. Opened in 1914 Pg

7 107. Wilson’s Neutrality (WWI)
When World War I broke out in Europe, Woodrow Wilson called on Americans to remain “impartial in thought as well as deed”. Wilson’s request, however, was impossible because of the vast sympathy many Americans had for Britain. The US also did not discontinue trade with Britain when WWI began. Although America’s stance at the beginning of the war was neutral, it was clear that not much was meant by this claim. 1914 Pg. 560

8 108. Pacifists vs. Interventionists
The issue of whether America should make military and economic preparations for war created a debate between pacifists and interventionists. Wilson appeased to the interventionists (those who wanted to go to war) by endorsing a proposal by American military leaders for a large increase in America’s armed forces. Supporters of peace still possessed great political strength, as was clear at the Democratic Convention in the summer of 1916. Pg. 561

9 109. Zimmerman Telegram On February 25, 1917, the British gave Wilson an intercepted telegram from German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, to the government of Mexico. The telegram, known as the Zimmerman Telegram, asked for an alliance with Mexico, if war broke out between the United States and Germany. Germany promised Mexico the return of its “lost provinces” in the North. The discovery of the Zimmerman Telegram infuriated Americans and significantly increased sentiment for war, and on April 2nd, Wilson appeared before Congress and asked for a declaration of war. Pg. 562

10 110. Battle of the Argonne Forest
On September 26th, 1917, an American fighting force of over 1 million soldiers marched towards the Germans in the Argonne Forest. By the end of October, the American Expeditionary Force assisted in pushing the Germans back towards their own border and in cutting Germany’s supply lines to the front. The Battle of the Argonne Forest ended the war, and on November 11, 1918, WWI officially ended. Pg

11 111. Trench Warfare Faced with the devastating new war technologies of the 20th Century, the Allies and the Central Powers both dug trenches to fight out of. With machine guns, flamethrowers, tanks, and poisonous gases, sending troops out in the open was not possible. Trench warfare was the main reason fighting in WWI was so horrible. Diseases such as shellshock and trench foot Trench warfare was also the reason the war dragged on for so long. Pg

12 112. The League of Nations On January 25th, 1919, Allies voted to accept Wilson’s most visible triumph at the Paris Peace Conference, the creation of the League of Nations, a permanent international organization to oversee world affairs and prevent future wars. Although the European leaders of the Paris Peace Conference accepted Wilson’s League of Nations, Wilson had no luck gaining acceptance back in the US. Many believed that America should remain free from foreign entanglements. League membership was ultimately rejected in the United States, despite vast efforts by Wilson to gain acceptance. Pg

13 #113 The Red Scare Date: 1919-1920 Pg. # 575
Description: The Red Scare were the frightening omens of instability and radicalism in the 1920’s and the aftermath of WWI. Many feared the threat of growing communism in the world after the USSR announced the formation of the Comintern, whose purpose was to instil communism in as many countries as possible. Many Americans quickly developed a fear of communism.

14 #114 Great Migration Date: 1919 Pg. #574-575
Description: In the aftermath of the Great War, the frustration of many African Americans grew heavily after they were not recognized for their valiant efforts on the front line. This angered many African Americans and caused many to fight for their rights. After being duped out of the honors that they deserved many decided to move out of the South after being enticed by “labor agents” offering free transportation. The population density of African Americans heavily decreased in the South and increased much more in the North.

15 #115 Stock Market Crash Date: Oct. 29, 1929 Pg. # 603-604
Description: On Black Tuesday, all efforts to save the Stock Market were ineffective and the market crashed. The industrial index dropped by nearly 10% and wiped out the previous year’s gains. In months stocks had lost nearly all of their value and continued to decline for many years. Many economists say the stock market crash was one of the biggest contributors to the Great Depression.

16 #116 Great Depression Date: 1929-1933 Chapter 23
Description: The Great Depression was one of the lowest points in American History. Unemployment rates reached 20% and living standards decreased heavily. Many believe the stock market crash was the main factor of the Depression, however many also accredit President Hoover for it carrying on so long. The economy did not get the jump start it needed until President Roosevelt came along.

17 #117 Herbert Hoover Dates of Presidency: 1929-1933 Pg. #598-599
Description: Herbert Hoover was elected in 1928 and the President throughout the Great Depression. Although it was tough circumstances, many believe Hoover did not “do enough” to save the economy. Hoover did not initiate any stimulus packages and rarely attempted to actively save the economy. Hoover was a very unpopular president and only served one term. He lost to President Theodore Roosevelt in the election of 1932.

18 #118 Bonus Army Date: July 1932 Pg. #622
Description: In July of 1932, many WWI veterans were promised pensions after returning from the war. Due to the tough times they demanded the money instantly. After the government could not provide them the money, they started a riot as “The Bonus Army.” President Hoover ordered General MacArthur to remove the veterans resulting in the injury of over 100 marchers.

19 #119 Direct v. Indirect Relief
Date: Pg. # Description: Direct v. Indirect relief was the tactic President Theodore Roosevelt used in an attempt to save the economy from the Depression. Direct relief, for example, would be the Emergency Banking Act where the government sent money in to save the banks. Indirect relief supplied people with the tools to help themselves get back on their feet themselves and do the work so they could be successful such as in the Civilian Conservation Corps.

20 120. Election of 1932 pg In the election of 1932, the Republican Party renominated Herbert Hoover for second term in office. The Democrats nominated the governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. At the end of the election, Roosevelt won by a landslide receiving 57.4% of the popular vote to Hoover’s 39.7%, and Roosevelt carried every state except Delaware, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The Election of 1932 illustrated a strong desire for a change in the United States’ economy. As the people were in a state of a despair, the Great Depression gave the public new hopes of selecting a new president since Hoover’s program directed the United States into a bad situation. A few people doubted the outcome of the 1932 presidential election. When President Roosevelt won by a landslide, he provided his “New Deal” coalition, avoided divisive and cultural issues, and emphasized the economic grievances. Roosevelt stated, “I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.”

21 121. Fireside Chats pg. 628 The Fireside Chats were public speeches that Franklin D. Roosevelt used, during his presidential years, , to announce and explain in simple terms his programs and plans to the public through the Great Depression. As the first president to make use of the radio, Franklin D. Roosevelt helped boost public confidence in the administration. As total, President Roosevelt addressed over thirty speeches broadcast via radio speaking on topics from banking situations and unemployment updates to international conflicts occurring in Europe. The Fireside Chats was a significant way for President Roosevelt to earn his respect as he reinforced hope back into the American people. Roosevelt hoped that the economy would change for the better if he were in the executive power. Roosevelt was able to win favor from Americans. Although he was stricken with polio in his legs, the Fireside Chats made it possible for President Roosevelt to still be an active and energetic president to the public. Economically, the Fireside Chats brought a new type of communication from the president to the citizens and made an effective use in radio technology, bypassing the circumstances of yellow journalism and newspapers.

22 122. New Deal Legislation Chapter 24
The New Deal legislation was introduced in Roosevelt’s first “100 Days” in office on March 6, In the legislation, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to pass various bills that would help the economy and public survive through the Great Depression and, above all, demolish it. The New Deal was constructed to relieve the population through the unemployment and stress, to recover numerous industrial and economic productions that were hit the hardest by the depression, and to reform programs in order to insure that another depression like the one present in the 1930s would never happen again. The New Deal played a social, economic, and political impact during the Great Depression. Socially, the New Deal boosted public morals and helped millions of Americans struggle through the tough times through either finding jobs or pensions such as Social Security. Economically, the New Deal helped open temporary jobs for Americans and to redistribute money into the economy again. Also, the New Deal put money back into banks in order to avoid another panic. Politically, the New Deal was able to get the federal government to be involved in this whole crisis through the use of deficit spending. Overall, the New Deal did nothing to end the Great Depression but to keep the economy from reaching a terrible state.

23 123. “100 Days” pg. 628-634 (Indirectly)
“100 Days” refers to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first one hundred days in taking office. From March 6 to June 16, 1933, President Roosevelt had managed to get Congress to pass numerous events and acts. Events and acts such as the “bank holiday,” that issued a proclamation of closing all American banks for four days until Congress could consider banking reformation, the Emergency Banking Act, a bill designed to protect larger banks from being corrupted by lower banks, and many more acts and administrations were examples that Roosevelt distributed during his first three and a half months. The first “100 Days” of Roosevelt in office paved way to his creation of the “New Deal.” In total, President Roosevelt passed an incredible fifteen separate bills that either helped with banking, unemployment, poverty, or economic improvements. His administration during the hundred days revolutionized the way the federal government was played into the economy and people’s lives by restoring faith back into the public and reforming businesses and banks back into its normal , economic states.

24 124. Social Security pg In 1935, Roosevelt constructed the Social Security Act. The act established several distinct programs and assistances to elders, either employed or unemployed. The unemployed could receive $15 in federal assistance. Many working Americans were incorporated into a pension system that would provide workers with income and retirement. In addition, the act created and unemployment insurance system and federal aid to people with disabilities and dependent children. The act also provided considerable and direct assistance based on needs to those who were unable to support themselves. The Social Security Act affected and, overtime, modified to adapt to a changing society. Social Security sought to help the unemployed of any perspective from injuries or disabilities. By its creation, the act supported the elderly citizens and limited poverty, burden, and unemployment gradually overtime. Social Security provided for the old age an adequate retirement after work of labor. The act funded to care for those who cannot take care of themselves. Although the Social Security act was feared since it did not reach American needs in the short term, today, Social Security is still helpful for those who are struggling to earn an adequate income.

25 125. Court-Packing Plan pg. 642-643
The Court-Packing Plan was a legislative initiative proposed by President Roosevelt in The plan overhauled the federal court system by including a provision to add up to six new justices to the Supreme Court. He claimed that the courts were overworked and needed additional manpower and younger men to enable them to cope with their increasing burdens. But its real purpose was to give President Roosevelt the opportunity to appoint new justices and change the ideological balance of the court. The Court-Packing Plan was proposed by President Roosevelt because of his concerns against the Supreme Court justice. Because the court found Roosevelt’s New Deal to be unconstitutional, the president responded by dismissing the justices as a threat to constituting the New Deal. Politically, as a result, both Democrats and Republicans were outraged to see how Roosevelt distorted the “checks and balances” system through his powers to appoint the justices out of court without consent. On this controversial measure, the plan gave President Roosevelt dictatorial power when the Supreme Court was overloaded with court cases. In total, seven of nine of the justices were President Roosevelt’s appoints.

26 126. Cash-and-Carry/Lend-Lease pg. 658, 661, 663-664
The Cash-and-Carry was a policy established in The policy stated that nations in war could purchase only non-military goods from the United States and could do so only by paying cash and shipping their purchases themselves. The cash-and-carry policy was established into the Neutrality Act of The Lend-Lease system was proposed by President Roosevelt for supplying Britain. It would allow the United States’ government to sell and to lease armaments to any nations deemed “pivotal to the defense of the United States.” America could funnel weapons to England on the basis of no more than their promise to return supplies or soldiers when the war was over. The bill was enacted by Congress in March The Cash-and-Carry policy helped the United States maintain an isolationist position during the late 1930s and most of early World War II. By setting up this policy, manufacturers of armaments could sell their hardware for cash, and the United States could avoid getting entangled in the war since America had possessed an outstanding debt from warring countries. For Europe, the policy helped to aid England and France against Germany. In the long term, the policy became very ineffective. England became bankrupt from paying too much supplies, and the United States was kept out of World War II for a limited amount of time. Because of its failure to supply Britain, the United States replaced the policy with a “Lend-Lease” System. The Lend-Lease system challenged isolationism in the United States. Instead of being paid, America decided to supply soldiers to the Allies. In other words, America was brought more into the conflict of World War II in a non-combat role. Overall, the system helped the Allies forces win battles. Other countries such as China and Soviet Union received help from United States in their own situations. Politically, President Roosevelt felt as if he conducted an “undeclared war” all over the world in which Americans would do everything besides being involved in international conflicts or fighting.

27 127. Attack on Pearl Harbor Pg. six hundred sixty-six
7:55 on Sunday, December 7, 1941 on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii Over 2,4oo soldiers and sailors died and another 1,000 were injured U.S declares war on Japan

28 128. Holocaust Pg. 674-5 German genocide of the Jews
Around 8 million Jews were killed Fueled by the blame of WWI put on by Hitler

29 129. Battle of Midway Pg. 671 June 3-6, 1942 on Midway Island
Turning point in the battle for the Pacific America destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers without losing one of its own

30 130. D-Day Invasion Pg. 688-9 June 6, 1944 in Normandy, France
Dwight E. Eisenhower led invasion Allies land almost 3 million troops Led to the downfall of Vichy France

31 131. Battle of the Bulge Pg. 689 December 16, 1944 in Bastoge, Germany
Named after the large bulge in American lines Last major battle on the western front Germany lost 120,000 men

32 132. Battle of Leyte Gulf Pg. 690-1
October 20, 1944 in the Philippines The largest naval engagement in history America, led by Chester Nimitz, sank four Japanese carriers

33 ID #133: Battle of Okinawa p.691, 2nd paragraph
June 1945; battle lasted for several weeks Okinawa is a Japanese island 370 miles south of the mainland The Japanese utilized kamikazes in the battle, sacrificing 3,500 planes while causing over 50,000 Allied (primarily US) casualties; the US killed over 100,000 Japanese soldiers in the battle In late June the US took Okinawa Despite having limited armaments, Japan still did not capitulate in the Pacific Theater Seeing that the same type of costly fighting would await the US if they invaded the actual mainland, Truman would make the decision to use the first atomic weapon in history in order to end the war Therefore, the Battle of Okinawa was the last battle of the Pacific Theater in World War Two

34 ID #134: Axis/Allies WWII pp.659-660, 667
Allies formed in 1939; US and USSR joined in Axis formed beginning in 1936 The Axis and Allies were the two alliances formed at the beginning of World War Two; The Axis powers were Japan, Germany, and Italy, while the Allies were the United States, France, Great Britain, and the USSR How they formed: The Allies came together when Germany invaded Poland, which caused France and Britain to declare war on Germany. Later, Hitler would invade Russia, leading to Stalin declaring war on Germany and joining the Allies. The US would officially join the Allies after Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor. The Axis powers first consisted of Italy and Germany, who claimed they wanted to destroy the Western world of democracy and capitalism. Later Hitler argued he wanted to defend the world from communism by invading Russia. Japan, wanting to share in the Axis goals and create an empire of its own, would join the Allies before it bombed Pearl Harbor. Their goals: Within the Allies, Britain and the US had different goals from the USSR. As stated in the Atlantic Charter, the US and Britain sought no territorial gains; rather, their war aim was to create a new world order by destroying the fascist empires such as Nazi Germany. The USSR hoped to spread communism while also taking Central European nations that would serve as buffer states between it and Germany. However, it would soon adopt the goal of destroying Nazi Germany. The Axis powers, as mentioned earlier, sought to create empires while also “rebuilding” the Western world.

35 ID #135: Manhattan Project pp. 691-695
After word spread that Germany had begun work on an atomic weapon, the US soon decided to pursue an atomic bomb as well As a result, it adopted the Manhattan Project, a secret project into which the government poured $2 billion There were several sites at which nuclear chain reactions were tested, but a laboratory in Los Alamos, NM was charged with the creation of the actual atomic bomb The scientists used plutonium to create a nuclear reaction within the confines of a bomb Led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, it was completed on July 16, That day the first atomic explosion in history occurred at Alamogordo, New Mexico The atomic bomb would be used by Truman on August 6 on Hiroshima and August 9 on Nagasaki

36 ID #136: Containment Doctrine pp. 702-703
The containment doctrine established the basis of US foreign policy during the Cold War Containment was the Unites States’ response to the growing threat of communism; essentially, the US stated that it would work to contain the further spread of communism The Truman doctrine, March 12, 1947, made the containment doctrine official, as in it Truman stated that the US had the right to aid nations being unwillingly subjugated by communism Containment would lead to conflict between the US and the Soviet Union as well as growing fear of subversion in the United States

37 ID #137: Alger Hiss/Rosenberg Case pp.718-719
Alger Hiss was a member of the US State Department who was accused of passing along classified State Department documents in 1937 and 1938 HUAC investigated the accusations in 1948 and sentenced Hiss to jail for several years The Rosenbergs were members of the Communist Party in the US who were accused of receiving secret information on the creation of the United States’ atomic bomb and passing it along to the Soviets, who had recently created a bomb of their own On April 5th, 1951 they were both convicted and sentenced to death. They were killed by the electric chair two years later on June 19th, 1953 The episodes of both Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs led to a fearful social climate in the US, one that faced the threat of communist subversion

38 ID #138: McCarthyism pp Amid the fears of communism in the United States, Senator Joseph McCarthy gained power by claiming to know of 205 communists in the US State Department The public quickly came to rally behind McCarthy for his “fearless” attacks on the communist threat in America Beginning in 1952, McCarthy used his acclaim to accuse many federal employees of domestic subversion; however, he never was able to produce conclusive evidence of any actual wrongdoing His countless accusations without evidence came to be known as McCarthyism. Nobody ever spoke out against him in the fear of being accused themselves because he had so much public support

39 Brown v. Board of Education pg. 746-747
May 17, 1954: date of court decision. This supreme court case was between the Board of Education of Topeka and the Browns, an African American family, who’s daughter had to walk miles to school even though there was a white school down the block. The decision of the court overturned the ruling of the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, that racial segregation was legal because the facilities were separate but equal. This in turn desegregated schools throughout the country. This was a large step forward in race relations in America; however, it led to racial violence and tensions in the South.

40 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pg. 747-748, 764-769
March April 4, 1968: Montgomery bus boycott to death. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a Baptist pastor from Atlanta, GA who became the leader of the Civil Rights movement. He believed in non-violent protesting and was a gifted public speaker. Montgomery bus boycott gives him national attention. Led the march on Washington in 1963, gave the “I have a Dream” speech. Worked with JFK and LBJ to pass civil Rights legislation. Was assassinated April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.

41 Dwight D. Eisenhower pg. 671, 711, 721-722, 749-755,
: Military involvement in WWII to end presidency. Eisenhower first gained notoriety as a general in WWII, after he planned and led the D-Day invasion successfully. He was elected president in 1952 and was reelected in 1956, and ended Democratic Party's long control of the White House. Passed the Highway Act 0f 1956, a $25 billion, ten year project that built over 40,000 miles of highways.

42 John F. Kennedy pg.758-775 1960- November 22, 1963: Presidency
Kennedy won the election of 1960, narrowly beating Richard Nixon. Some were skeptical of him because of his lack of political experience and that he was Catholic; however, he was mostly accepted because of his charisma and public speaking skills. He helped to further the civil rights movement and started America’s space program. He was assassinated November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald while riding In his motorcade.

43 Lynden B. Johnson pg. 760-780 1960-1968: Vice presidency to end of
Was sworn into office after the assassination of President Kennedy. Johnson was a career politician and used his Political know-how to pass legislation such as The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and Immigration Act of 1965. Became unpopular towards the end of his presidency because of his unrelenting stance on the Vietnam War.

44 Affirmative Action pg. 769 1965-present
Affirmative Action is the concept of hiring or accepting minorities over whites to demonstrate that ones establishment does not discriminate. Many whites believe that affirmative action has had a negative effect because now whites could not have fair chance at getting a job or getting into a school because minorities are more likely to be accepted.

45 Cuban Missile Crisis pg. 772-773
October 14-26, 1962 U.S. intelligence received aerial photos of nuclear missiles in Cuba that America believed to be supplied by the U.S.S.R. to the Communist government. This worried the U.S. because of the Close proximity of Cuba to the U.S. This led to an American Blockade around Cuba and almost an attack on the Cuban missile bases. On October 26 Khruchchev sent a message to President Kennedy saying that he would remove the missiles from Cuba and the crisis was ended.

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