Presentation on theme: "DR MUSLIHAH HASBULLAH TOPIC 9: POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMS & HOUSING POLICIES FEM3106 SOCIAL POLICY & THE LAW."— Presentation transcript:
DR MUSLIHAH HASBULLAH TOPIC 9: POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMS & HOUSING POLICIES FEM3106 SOCIAL POLICY & THE LAW
POVERTY– SYNDROM/SITUATION 2 Food shortages Low health status Low income Unemployment Unsafe housing conditions
POVERTY– SYNDROM/SITUATION 3 Low level of education Jobs are not guaranteed Negative attitude of life Old-fashioned mind It is formed as a result of economic and social environment as well as the general goals of society to be achieved through anti- poverty policy.
KAJIAN SEPARUH PENGGAL RANCANGAN MALAYSIA KESEMBILAN 2006-2010 Kemiskinan mutlak di Malaysia terus berkurang. Insiden kemiskinan keseluruhan di kalangan rakyat Malaysia telah berkurang daripada 5.7 peratus pada tahun 2004 kepada 3.6 peratus pada tahun 2007. Jumlah isi rumah miskin berkurang sebanyak 33 peratus daripada 311,300 kepada 209,000 hasil daripada pertumbuhan ekonomi yang mantap serta pelaksanaan pelbagai program dan projek pembasmian kemiskinan.
Insiden kemiskinan di Sabah telah berkurang daripada 23 peratus kepada 16 peratus, manakala di Sarawak berkurang daripada 7.5 peratus kepada 4.2 peratus. Kemiskinan tegar berkurang daripada 1.2 peratus pada tahun 2004 kepada 0.7 peratus pada tahun 2007. Bilangan isi rumah miskin tegar juga berkurang sebanyak 43 peratus daripada 67,300 kepada 38,400 dalam tempoh yang sama.
POVERTY LINE INCOME (PLI) According to Human Rights Commissioner, Dr Denison Jayasooria - the actual rate is above 30%. Why? The calculations of the Poverty Line Income (PLI), which only take into account the basic needs (keperluan asas) regardless of the household standard of living (taraf hidup isi rumah) is not right - do not reflect the real situation of the poor.
…con’t Developed countries such as Sweden & S'pore – the PLI is the average household income divided by 2. If in M'sia: average household income is RM3, 686 ÷ 2 = RM1, 843. PLI 2005: RM720 (Peninsular), RM960 (Sabah): RM830 (S'wak). Increased cost of living in the city caused the rate prescribed for the PLI is not realistic. Quality of life of the family is not dependent on the basic needs but also consider other facilities such as refrigerator, TV, computer, etc..
MAJOR ECONOMIC POLICIES 8 Laissez-faire / export-oriented Economic and rural development Growth with Equity : To eradicate poverty & restructure of society Total Development Balanced Development : To establish a more united & just society Building a Resilient & Competitive Nation : To raise quality of development & generate high sustainable growth Post- independence 1957-70 New Economic Policy (NEP) National Development Policy (NDP) National Vision Policy (NVP) Vision 2020 OPP1 (1971- 1990) OPP2 (1991- 2000) OPP3 (2001- 2010) 8 THE NATIONAL MISSION 2006-2020 Enhancing Nation’s Capability ~ unity, distribution & quality of life
POVERTY-RELATED POLICIES Outline Perspectives Plan 1 (NEP): 1970-1990. Outline Perspectives Plan 2 (DPB): 1991-2000. Outline Perspectives Plan 3: 2000 -2010. New Economic Model introduced under the Economic Transformation Plan (ETP): 2010-2020
YAYASAN BASMI KEMISKINAN Established under the Trust Act, Ordinance 1952 NGO involved directly to help the hard core poor in Selangor & all over M’sia. Programs: Desa Kasih Lindungan Kasih Program Pemulihan Sikap D’Kasih Cafe Program Kesihatan Peningkatan pendapatan http://www.ybk.org.my/
AMANAH IKHTIAR A Private Trust bodies established on 17 September 1987 by Suratcara Perjanjian AIM (a microcredit organization). Registered under the Trustees (Incorporation) Act 1952 (amended 1981) (Act 258). It was jointly established by Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Malaysian Islamic Economic Development Foundation (YPEIM), the State Government of Selangor and the Asia Pacific Development Centre.
Amanah Ikhtiar is modelled after Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. It helps the hardcore poor by helping them venture into businesses with its micro-credit loans. The body is monitored by the Finance Ministry and has 230,000 members to date. Since its inception in 1986, Amanah Ikhtiar has disbursed nearly RM3.5 billion worth of loans. The smallest loan is RM500, while the highest that one can borrow is RM50,000.
…con’t Objective: To reduce poverty in Malaysia through the funding efforts for poor households in rural areas to finance activities that increase their income. RMK 8 - AIM provides micro-credit amounting to RM1.02 million to 147.544 players through 69 branches and 3,962 service centers throughout the country. Participants are women and single mothers in rural areas. RMK 9 - Aims to help the hardcore poverty and halving the poverty rate to 2.8% by 2010.
AIM is looking for serious people who are below the poverty line to start businesses in any thing. Borrowers do not have to come with guarantee letters and the interest rates are nominal, at 1 per cent per month. For the urban poor they have to be below the household income bracket of RM2,000 per household per month.
for those in rural areas they have to come under the the state poverty level, which differs from one state to another. Those who are 16 years old and above are eligible for the loan. Interested applicants must form a group of five applicants before approaching Amanah Ikhtiar for loans, of which all five members will also be entitled for such loans to start their own businesses.
RESEARCH ON AIM Impact of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia’s Microcredit Schemes on Microenterprise Assets in Malaysia http://www.eurojournals.com/irjfe_60_12.pdf International Research Journal of Finance and Economics ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 60 (2010)
TEKUN Nasional Tabung Ekonomi Kumpulan Usaha Niaga established under the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry. http://www.tekun.gov.my/web/guest/home Established as a result of the resolution of the Konvensyen Ekonomi Bumiputera Pulau Pinang 1994 in USM which suggested that an additional capital loan delivery system with a simple, fast and cheap without burdening the small entrepreneurs (Bumiputra). 1995, USM began the pioneer project in PP; Jeli, 1995 ; Besut 1997 and in 1998 it was expanded.
VISION, MISSION & FUNCTION VISION TEKUN Nasional as a superior strategic entrepreneur development institution. MISSION Providing micro financing and support services towards entrepreneurial development. FUNCTIONS a. To provide easy business financing. b. To provide business opportunities and entrepreneurial information. c. To provide support services and guidance to entrepreneurs who participate in TEKUN’s programS. d. To develop a progressive and dynamic TEKUN Entrepreneur community and business network. e. To instil entrepreneurship culture among Malaysians. f. To encourage savings lifestyle among TEKUN’s entrepreneurs
ZAKAT & POVERTY MAIWP menerusi Baitul Mal berperanan dan bertanggungjawab dari segi mengagihkan wang zakat yang diterima kepada golongan asnaf yang layak. Baitulmal MAIWP ditubuhkan menerusi peruntukan Seksyen 60(1) Akta 505 [Akta Pentadbiran Undang-undang Islam Wilayah- wilayah Persekutuan. Kaedah2 Baitulmal telah dibuat untuk memudahkan pengurusan Baitulmal. http://www.maiwp.gov.my/index.php/maklumat-korporat-mainmenu-38/bahagian- mainmenu-129/baitulmal-mainmenu-117.html http://www.maiwp.gov.my/index.php/maklumat-korporat-mainmenu-38/bahagian- mainmenu-129/baitulmal-mainmenu-117.html
Lembaga Zakat Selangor: www.e- zakat.com.my/ Tabung Baitul Mal Sarawak (TBS): www.tabung-baitulmal-sarawak.org.my/
HOUSING POLICIES IN MALAYSIA Refer to article by Teck-Hong Tan, Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Vol. 7(1) 2011. Refer to article by Teck-Hong Tan, Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Vol. 7(1) 2011. Title: Sustainability and Housing Provision in Malaysia Title: Sustainability and Housing Provision in Malaysia http://www.na- businesspress.com/JSIS/TanWeb.pdf http://www.na- businesspress.com/JSIS/TanWeb.pdf
HOUSING DEVELOPMENT & POLICIES IN M’SIA Malaysia is a multi-cultural country with 3 basic racial-religious groups. The housing industry has to take this into consideration in the housing development and planning. The residential patterns of the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia are noticeable due to their economic activities 30 years ago. For example, most of the Malays live in rural areas, most of the Chinese live in urban areas and most Indians live in rubber and oil palm estate.
In order to change these stereotypes of the ethnic groups in the country, New Economic Policies (NEP) were implemented in 1970. The overriding objective of NEP is to foster national unity and nation-building through the eradication of poverty, irrespective of race, and the restructuring of society to eliminate the identification of race with economic function and geographic location.
The Malaysian government encouraged the Malays to migrate to urban centers as part of the NEP strategy: to change the character of urban population which was dominated by the Chinese and also as part of the strategy to create a new Malay commercial community in urban area. The rapid rate of rural Malay migration to urban center in the 80s has caused the growing demand for affordable housing in many cities. The urban migration has resulted in a severe shortage in affordable housing. The urban poor have responded to the shortage by the formation of extensive slum and squatter settlements.
In an effort to reduce slum and squatter settlements and meet basic housing need for all Malaysians particularly for the low-income groups, housing policies and programs must be formulated to ensure that all have access to adequate housing. This led to the development of the housing policies in Malaysia…
Housing Policies Since 20 years ago The Third Malaysian Plan (1976 – 1980) The goal of housing is to eradicate poverty and restructure the society. First Malaysian Plan (1966 – 1970) and the Second Malaysian Plan (1971 – 1975) A variety of programs are designed to promote the welfare of all Malaysian regardless of ethnic background by providing improved housing, community facilities, welfare and other services.
The Fifth Malaysian Plan (1986 – 1990) Housing programs are being implemented in the context of the human settlement concept. Under this concept, the provision of social facilities, such as school, clinics, and community halls, is emphasized rather than the provision of basic infrastructural facilities. The Fourth Malaysian Plan (1981 – 1985) Continued the goal of the previous five-year plans.
The Eight Malaysian Plan (2001 – 2005) The priority is continued to be given to the development of low- and low- medium cost houses. Under this plan, both the public and private sectors are urged to cooperate with each others in order to meet increasing demand for housing. The Seventh Malaysian Plan (1996 – 2000) Low-medium cost house is introduced. The Sixth Malaysian Plan (1991 – 1995) Home owning within various income groups is emphasized.
Despite efforts by the public and private sectors to promote homeownership, there still exist an enormous number of issues which need to be urgently addressed to ensure that housing needs of all Malaysian could be met. First, housing achievement for the poor under Five-Year Malaysian Plans has not been satisfactory. The Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006 – 2010) The objective of the housing is to ensure that all Malaysians, especially those in the low- and low-medium income groups, will have access to adequate, quality and affordable housing.
Thirdly, in the case of private sector, the completed low- cost houses by private developers fell below the targeted level as they are not keen in building low-cost houses due to a low level of profitability. Second, the public sector has been giving low priority to the public low-cost housing program. Total housing needs for low-cost units during the 1986 –2005 has been estimated at 550, 700 units, but only 57% of this target are completed by public sector. The low achievement levels are due to a complicated and ambiguous relationship between federal, state and local levels.
How to address the Housing Provision Issues? A massive construction of medium & high cost housing projects. The problem of abandoned housing projects. Affordable housing financing. Liberalizing the EPF withdrawal for down payment & mortgage payment. Housing projects must be accompanied with integrated amenities & employment opportunities.
Apply the 10-90 system: Customer sign the S&P, pay 10% deposit, no more payment made until house is completed with Cert. of Completion & Compliance, water, electricity & vacant possession with keys. Applicable laws to arrest failed housing developers, such as forfeit such land, so the forfeited project can be revived immediately.
Projek Perumahan Untuk Rakyat - SPNB Rumah untuk rakyat berpendapatan rendah: Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB) komited untuk membina rumah bg rakyat berpendapatan rendah. Rumah mampu milik berharga tidak melebihi RM300,000. 3 program utama yg dilaksanakan: -Program Rumah Mesra Rakyat 1Malaysia (RMR1M) - Program Rumah Mampu Milik (RMM) -Pemulihan projek terbengkalai.
Perumahan Rakyat 1Malaysia (PR1MA) PR1MA Berhad ditubuhkan selaras dgn Akta PR1MA 2012. Bertanggungjawab merancang, membangun, membina dan menyelenggara perumahan gaya hidup berpatutan untuk rakyat berpendapatan sederahana (pendapatan bulanan isi rumah RM2500-RM7500) di kawasan bandar-bandar utama. Rumah yang ditawarkan berharga antara RM100,000-RM400,000.