Presentation on theme: "How was Germany affected by the international recession of the 1930s? What were the social policy consequences of the Nazi seizure of power? How did this."— Presentation transcript:
How was Germany affected by the international recession of the 1930s? What were the social policy consequences of the Nazi seizure of power? How did this affect the position of women in Germany? By Claire and Cara :D
Reparations for ww1 HYPERINFLATION: printing out more money, moneys becoming more and more worthless. -Stresemann scraps old currency, borrows money from US. This means that… “Germany is dancing on a volcano” –Stresemann predicted economy would collapse if debts were called in…. aaaaaaaaaand…. WALL STREET CRASH 1929- uh-oh!!! Germany can’t pay debts. Economy collapses. UNEMPLOYMENT at highest ever levels.
Weimer Republic: scrapped old currency- too little, too late: too much discontent Demand falls because people can’t afford products, production rate therefore falls, people lose jobs- manual industries peaked at 44 %unemployment. Garraty, p188: “paradox of poverty amidst plenty” 1930-1932 compulsory insurance contributions raised but benefits fell by 23%. Means testing introduced- at 7 weeks into unemployment. Local authority cannot prevent destitution. Anger and discontent.
Styled on American government- imposed on Germany. Reparations – France (Franco-Prussian War), Lloyd George (1918 election demand) America is investing in Weimer since they essentially created Weimer. Private loans. Hyperinflation destroys public funded insurance schemes.
Hitler comes into power 1933- 7 million unemployed Eliminates opposition i.e. Trade Unions BUT, to keep workers support, retains minimum wage. DAF- German workers front. Introduces huge public works programme i.e. railways, houses. Welfare comes from employer (Strength through Joy). Labour shortage replaced by labour surplus 1936- Hitler’s goal of “full employment” met in 3 years (or did it?) Policy based on autarky (self-sufficiency) so aimed to reduce dependency on international trade (keeps inflation under control by keeping money within country) - farms extended, providing more work Builds up transport links- unification of German speaking people. Restoring old empire. What constitutes ‘Germany’ still unclear
Strength through Joy -happy people = productive people -create loyalty to national socialism Labour Camps - keeping young people off the streets, countering the demoralisation of unemployment -keeping people fit, happy and loyal Investing in heavy industry i.e. rearmament Uses policy to maintain national identity and instil nationalist pride.
“Duty to prevent the procreation of the hereditary unfit” (This includes anyone they termed mentally unfit, physically unfit, racially inferior, politically unsound) Forced sterilization 1933 Forced abortion 1935 Marriage restrictions 1935 Genocide 1939 Sterilization for women much more invasive and dangerous for men (90% deaths resulting from sterilization were women) Protest pregnancies led to extension of law to abortions Psychiatric diagnosis of ‘unfit’ women based on how they conformed to restrictive gender stereotypes and morals. “Sterilization is liberation, not a punishment.” It show three handicapped children, with the caption: “Who would want to be responsible for this?”
Welfare measures aimed to encourage families (independent state benefits- not linked to employment) -Marriage Loans 1933 (family given coupons if woman leaves work- creating deceptive u/e statistics) -Women encouraged to have big families (repayment of loan decreased per child by ¼) -Income Tax reform 1934: childless families pay more tax -Monthly state child allowances from the third child onwards. Family allowances went to fathers “not an old-fashioned cult of motherhood, but a modern cult of Fatherhood” Bock, p243. Welfare prioritised men over women.
Remember Ladies, you are only valued if you are a Mother!
Women were not en-masse forced to leave work- 11.5m in work 1933, 12.8m in 1939 (Bock, p241) 1944- 53% workforce women (ibid.)
Economy collapses unemployment Weimer fails to regain control/support Hitler introduces work programmes, youth programmes, recreational programmes and instils nationalist fervour Life improves if you’re liked If not….inhumane suffering.