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Educational Leadership for Gifted Students The Gifted Learner Dr Elizabeth Maxwell Sydney Girls High School.

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1 Educational Leadership for Gifted Students The Gifted Learner Dr Elizabeth Maxwell Sydney Girls High School

2 Module Aims This module will enable students to explore and to develop an understanding of: Practical strategies that recognise and actively engage the cognitive and affective characteristics and learning needs of gifted and talented students in the classroom the role of technology in Gifted and Talented education

3 Module Outcomes By the end of this module students will have developed: a broad understanding of the rationale for and means of catering to the needs of GATS a broad understanding of the rationale for and means of catering to the needs of GATS some competency in promoting gifted education classroom strategies that promote/ support/ foster leadership. some competency in promoting gifted education classroom strategies that promote/ support/ foster leadership.

4 Who are we teaching? The gifted learner Quality learning environment

5 Varying definitions of giftedness DeHaan & Havinghurst – intellectual ability, creative thinking, scientific ability, social leadership, mechanical skills, fine arts DeHaan & Havinghurst – intellectual ability, creative thinking, scientific ability, social leadership, mechanical skills, fine arts S. P. Marland – intellectual ability, aptitude, creative thinking, leadership, psychomotor, visual/ performing arts S. P. Marland – intellectual ability, aptitude, creative thinking, leadership, psychomotor, visual/ performing arts Joseph Renzulli – ability, commitment and creativity Joseph Renzulli – ability, commitment and creativity Feldhusen – complex set of variables (1986) Feldhusen – complex set of variables (1986) Françoys Gagné– above average potential (top 10% of population, across one or more domains of ability) (Gagné, 2003) Françoys Gagné– above average potential (top 10% of population, across one or more domains of ability) (Gagné, 2003) Abraham Tannenbaum (1983)– ‘sea star’ model (interaction of personality attributes and environment) – general ability, special aptitude, non-intellective requisites, environmental supports, chance Abraham Tannenbaum (1983)– ‘sea star’ model (interaction of personality attributes and environment) – general ability, special aptitude, non-intellective requisites, environmental supports, chance Tannenbaum (2003) – producers and performers Tannenbaum (2003) – producers and performers Howard Gardner – multiple intelligences Howard Gardner – multiple intelligences Linda Silverman – abstract reasoning ability Robert Sternberg – 5 prerequisites Linda Silverman – abstract reasoning ability Robert Sternberg – 5 prerequisites (Gross et al, 2005)

6 Renzulli (1977, 1986, 1995, 1997) Above average ability Creativity Task commitment

7 Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences (1983, 1999) Domains Domains Spatial Spatial Linguistic Linguistic Logical-mathematical (IQ testing) Logical-mathematical (IQ testing) Bodily-kinesthetic Bodily-kinesthetic Musical Musical Interpersonal Interpersonal Intrapersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Naturalistic Existential Existential

8 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (1985) Triarchic theory Analytic, synthetic and practical giftedness + wisdom Analytical Analytical Creative Creative Practical Practical

9 Sternberg’s Pentagonal Implicit Theory (1995) Five prerequisites for giftedness Excellence – superior skill or attribute Excellence – superior skill or attribute Rarity Rarity Productivity Productivity Demonstrability Demonstrability Value Value (Sternberg, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005)

10 Definition Gifted students are those whose potential is distinctly above average in one or more of the following domains: intellectual, creative, social and physical. Talented students are those whose skills are distinctly above average in one or more areas of human performance. (Françoys Gagné, 1995)

11 What is intelligence? A single concept - ‘g’ = ability to think abstractly (scales by Binet & Terman, 1916, 1954) A single concept - ‘g’ = ability to think abstractly (scales by Binet & Terman, 1916, 1954) A multidimensional concept (Guilford, 1967; Sternberg, 1981, 1982) A multidimensional concept (Guilford, 1967; Sternberg, 1981, 1982) fluid intelligence fluid intelligence crystallised intelligence crystallised intelligence Intelligence (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 1999, 2000) Intelligence (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 1999, 2000) product of genes + environment product of genes + environment Ways of processing information and thinking Ways of processing information and thinking Measurement/ testing – IQ + ? Measurement/ testing – IQ + ?

12 Characteristics of the Gifted Learner Cognitive and Affective Cognitive and Affective  superior insight  ability to draw inferences  intuitive  exceptional thinking skills & problem-solving abilities  sense of humour  independent  highly motivated — self-selected tasks

13 Cognitive characteristics Complex thought processes Complex thought processes Facility for abstraction Facility for abstraction Passion for learning Passion for learning Intellectual curiosity Intellectual curiosity Superior across an array of cognitive tasks as early as pre-school Superior across an array of cognitive tasks as early as pre-school Rapid learning rate Rapid learning rate Divergent-thinking/ creativity Divergent-thinking/ creativity Vivid imagination – ability to generate original ideas Vivid imagination – ability to generate original ideas Power of concentration Power of concentration Well-developed memory Well-developed memory Preference for independent work Preference for independent work Multiple interests Multiple interests (Silverman, 1993; VanTassel-Baska, 1995)

14 Affective characteristics (VanTassel-Baska, 1995) Mature moral reasoning Mature moral reasoning Early concern with moral, ethical or religious issues (death) Early concern with moral, ethical or religious issues (death) Strong sense of justice Strong sense of justice Keen sense of humour Keen sense of humour Emotional intensity Emotional intensity High levels of energy High levels of energy Perfectionism Perfectionism

15 Affective characteristics (cont) Social – emotional concerns (Gross et al, 2004) Social – emotional concerns (Gross et al, 2004) Identity Identity Autonomy Autonomy Intimacy Intimacy Sexuality Sexuality Achievement Achievement Self-concept & self-esteem (impacted by ability grouping) Self-concept & self-esteem (impacted by ability grouping) Resilience Resilience Altruism and idealism Altruism and idealism Strong attachments & commitments Strong attachments & commitments Aesthetic sensitivity Aesthetic sensitivity Adolescents Adolescents Emotional maturity Emotional maturity Social comparisons Social comparisons

16 GATS and Creativity Key themes & challenges (Treffinger, 2002, 2007a, 2007b) Key themes & challenges (Treffinger, 2002, 2007a, 2007b) Justification Justification Definitions Definitions Characteristics Characteristics Assessment Assessment Nurture (Davis, 2003; Sousa, 2006; Sternberg, 2000; Torrance, 1987) Nurture (Davis, 2003; Sousa, 2006; Sternberg, 2000; Torrance, 1987)

17 Creativity - Justification Ongoing debate between content and process Ongoing debate between content and process Lifelong importance in work and life Lifelong importance in work and life At risk of obsolescence without creativity (Sternberg, 2000) At risk of obsolescence without creativity (Sternberg, 2000) Certainty of change – creativity modifiable Certainty of change – creativity modifiable

18 Creativity - Definitions Guilford (1950, 1967) Guilford (1950, 1967) concepts of convergent and divergent thinking abilities concepts of convergent and divergent thinking abilities Flexibility, fluency, originality and spontaneity Flexibility, fluency, originality and spontaneity Sensitivity to problems Sensitivity to problems Improvisation/ elaboration Improvisation/ elaboration Issues of breadth, complexity and diversity Domain Issues of breadth, complexity and diversity Domain Skills/ processes across content and talents Skills/ processes across content and talents Modifiable ability or expertise (Sternberg, 2000) Modifiable ability or expertise (Sternberg, 2000)

19 Creativity - Characteristics Importance of sustained interest, passion and intensity Importance of sustained interest, passion and intensity Extend beyond traditional cognitive views of divergent thinking Extend beyond traditional cognitive views of divergent thinking Longitudinal vs snapshot in time Longitudinal vs snapshot in time Group vs individual creativity Group vs individual creativity Aside from cognitive abilities and personality traits, involve style preferences Aside from cognitive abilities and personality traits, involve style preferences

20 Steps for creative decision-makers (Sternberg, 2000) 1. Redefine problems 2. Analyse own ideas 3. Sell your ideas 4. Knowledge is a double-edged sword 5. Surmount obstacles 6. Take sensible risks 7. Willingness to grow 8. Believe in yourself 9. Tolerance of ambiguity 10. Find what you love to do and do it.

21 Creativity - Assessment Problematic – not one single score Problematic – not one single score Multiple sources Multiple sources Multidimensional – assessment to correspond to definition etc. Multidimensional – assessment to correspond to definition etc. Present creative environments Present creative environments Torrance tests of creative thinking Torrance tests of creative thinking Element in the Renzulli-Hartman scale for rating behavioral characteristics or superior students Element in the Renzulli-Hartman scale for rating behavioral characteristics or superior students

22 Creativity - Nurture Importance of culture and climate for nurturing creativity Importance of culture and climate for nurturing creativity Systematic framework Systematic framework Teachers explain decisions, describe examples, create opportunities Teachers explain decisions, describe examples, create opportunities 6 thinking hats, CoRT Thinking, etc. 6 thinking hats, CoRT Thinking, etc. Boundless – cross-cultural Boundless – cross-cultural Valid for all students – different outcomes with GATS Valid for all students – different outcomes with GATS Mentoring Mentoring Self-directed learning (Torrance, 2007) Self-directed learning (Torrance, 2007)

23 Socio-affective Peer relationships Peer relationships Leadership Leadership Current planning/ involvement Current planning/ involvement Future Future Consequences of grouping options Consequences of grouping options Emotional intelligence (Piechowski, 2003; Arnold, 2005) Emotional intelligence (Piechowski, 2003; Arnold, 2005) Moral reasoning (Lovecky, 1997; Hoffman, 2000; Pagnin & Andreani, 2000; Hay 2008) Moral reasoning (Lovecky, 1997; Hoffman, 2000; Pagnin & Andreani, 2000; Hay 2008) Non-intellective traits (catalyst – values) Non-intellective traits (catalyst – values)

24 Over-excitabilities Intellectual Intellectual Psychomotor Psychomotor Emotional Emotional Imaginational Imaginational Sensual Sensual (Dabrowski, 1964; Piechowski, 1991)

25 Special populations Twice/ Dual exceptional (visual spatial learners Twice/ Dual exceptional (visual spatial learners Rural Rural Indigenous Indigenous Gender Gender Needs (Konza & Moroney, 2002) Needs (Konza & Moroney, 2002) Learning (Silverman, 1998) Learning (Silverman, 1998) Instruction Instruction

26 In general.... A Bright Child....A Gifted Child.... Knows the answer Asks the questions - sometimes deep probing questions of an abstract nature. Is interestedIs highly curious Is attentiveIs mentally and physically involved Has good ideasHas wild, silly ideas Works hardPlays around, yet tests well Answers the questionsDiscusses in detail, elaborates Top GroupBeyond the group Listens with interestShows strong feelings and opinions Learns with easeAlready knows 6-8 repetitions for mastery 1-2 repetitions for mastery Understands ideasConstructs abstractions Brain food, accessed 5/12/10,

27 Enjoys peers Prefers adults or older children or seeks out other very bright or gifted peers Grasps the meaningDraws inferences and opens up new questions Completes assignmentsInitiates projects Is receptiveIs intense Copies accuratelyCreates a new design Enjoys schoolEnjoys learning - but may hate school. Absorbs informationManipulates information TechnicianInventor - Loves construction toys Good MemoriserGood guesser - draws on vast information store Is alert Is keenly observant - seems to remember fine details Is pleased with own learning Is highly self-critical - can be perfectionistic to the point of tantrums when young Enjoys straight-forward and/or sequential presentation Thrives on complexity - needs the whole picture. Requires a gestalt approach.

28 The gifted population vulnerable (Silverman, 1993) vulnerable (Silverman, 1993) underachievers underachievers students with learning difficulties students with learning difficulties students with physical disabilities students with physical disabilities conduct-disordered students conduct-disordered students students from non-English speaking backgrounds students from non-English speaking backgrounds Indigenous students Indigenous students socio-economically disadvantaged students socio-economically disadvantaged students students disadvantaged by gender inequity students disadvantaged by gender inequity geographically isolated students geographically isolated students (Gross et al, 2004)

29 Identification Multiple criteria Multiple criteria Subjective measures Subjective measures Nomination Nomination Parent Parent Teacher Teacher Peers Peers Objective measures Objective measures Psychometric testing Psychometric testing Standardised achievement tests Standardised achievement tests Teacher/ school assessment Teacher/ school assessment Off-level testing Off-level testing Diverse populations – socially/ culturally Diverse populations – socially/ culturally Aptitude Aptitude Self Self

30 Distinction between experts & novices Possesses schemas for encoding elements into a single entity Possesses schemas for encoding elements into a single entity Skills acquisition without needing to recall the rule Skills acquisition without needing to recall the rule Automation important for complex problem- solving (domains of expertise) Automation important for complex problem- solving (domains of expertise) Work forwards Work forwards No access to relevant schemas No access to relevant schemas Attempt to remember & process individual elements Attempt to remember & process individual elements Need to apply cognitive capacity to efficient problem- solving Need to apply cognitive capacity to efficient problem- solving Work backwards Work backwards (Chi et al., 1982; Cooper, 1990; Wilson & Cole, 1996; Schneider & Shiffrin, 1997; Touvinen, 1997; Kalyuga, Chandler & Sweller, 1998; Sweller, 1999)

31 Catalysts Intrapersonal Intrapersonal Motivation Motivation Confidence Confidence Environmental Environmental Surroundings Surroundings People People Provisions Provisions Events Events (Gross et al, 2004)

32 Intrapersonal catalysts (Rogers, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2010; Kanevsky, 1999) “…giftedness does not develop in a vacuum” – need for nurturing (Silverman, 1993; VanTassel-Baska, 1995) “…giftedness does not develop in a vacuum” – need for nurturing (Silverman, 1993; VanTassel-Baska, 1995) Betts and Neihart (1988, 2010) Betts and Neihart (1988, 2010) Successful (90%?), challenging, underground, dropouts, double labelled, autonomous Successful (90%?), challenging, underground, dropouts, double labelled, autonomous Leadership (Renzulli, 2003; Tannenbaum, 2003) Leadership (Renzulli, 2003; Tannenbaum, 2003) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Affective learning – self-concept, moral reasoning, career aspirations, social adjustment Affective learning – self-concept, moral reasoning, career aspirations, social adjustment

33 Motivation Developmental perspective (Ainley, 2002) Developmental perspective (Ainley, 2002) Intrinsic and extrinsic Intrinsic and extrinsic Mastery of goals & task involvement Mastery of goals & task involvement Performance goals Performance goals Fostering autonomous learners (Betts, 2004; Neihart & Betts 2010) Fostering autonomous learners (Betts, 2004; Neihart & Betts 2010)

34 Underachievement Kanevsky and Keighley (2003) Kanevsky and Keighley (2003) 5 Cs for turning off  Control (self-determination)  Choice  Challenge  Complexity  Caring Distinguishing features of academic self-perception and learning preferences

35 Styles of learning Learning styles – are not abilities Learning styles – are not abilities preferred way of processing information processing information dealing with tasks dealing with tasks Silverman (1998) Silverman (1998) Auditory sequential Auditory sequential Visual Spatial Visual Spatial GATS more likely to process information simultaneously rather than sequentially GATS more likely to process information simultaneously rather than sequentially Thinking styles = theory of self-government creative vs executive (my way vs tell me what to do) creative vs executive (my way vs tell me what to do) (Sternberg 1988, 1997; Zhang and Sternberg, 2006)

36 Cognitive psychology – key elements learning is an active and not a passive construct learning is an active and not a passive construct frameworks operate within memory to organise knowledge frameworks operate within memory to organise knowledge practice is important for the development of expertise practice is important for the development of expertise metacognition contributes to effective learning (Shore & Dover, 1987) metacognition contributes to effective learning (Shore & Dover, 1987) connectivity of these elements is essential for learning connectivity of these elements is essential for learning (Bruning et al., 2004) (Bruning et al., 2004)

37 Cognitive architecture Working memory Working memory Long-term memory Long-term memory Schema construction – forte of GATS Schema construction – forte of GATS (Bruning et al., 2004, p. 38)

38 Prior knowledge Essential variable in learning process (Dochy, Segers & Buehl, 1999; Mayer, 1998) Essential variable in learning process (Dochy, Segers & Buehl, 1999; Mayer, 1998) Dynamic and organised into schemas Dynamic and organised into schemas Includes declarative (Factual) and procedural knowledge Includes declarative (Factual) and procedural knowledge Implicitly and explicitly recalled Implicitly and explicitly recalled Inferences more important than facts – personalised learning Inferences more important than facts – personalised learning Schematic knowledge (prior understanding of problem types) allows for interpretation of new knowledge Schematic knowledge (prior understanding of problem types) allows for interpretation of new knowledge Initial presentation crucial to solution process Initial presentation crucial to solution process

39 Expertise Derived from possessing schemas that facilitate recognition of the problem itself (Sweller, 1999) Derived from possessing schemas that facilitate recognition of the problem itself (Sweller, 1999) Automation – distinction between accuracy & speed (Drommi, Ulfert & Shoemaker, 2001) Automation – distinction between accuracy & speed (Drommi, Ulfert & Shoemaker, 2001) Deliberate practice (Ericsson & Charness, 1994) Deliberate practice (Ericsson & Charness, 1994) (Mayer, 2003; Sternberg, 2000, 2003a, 2003b)

40 Processes of problem-solving GATS = “decontextualists” (Sternberg, 1985) GATS = “decontextualists” (Sternberg, 1985)

41 Importance of thinking: Divergent thinking Divergent thinking Type of “thinking” question Type of “thinking” question eg, thinking is analytical in nature eg, thinking is analytical in nature look at data, internalise it and put it into some framework look at data, internalise it and put it into some framework key - evaluation of data key - evaluation of data a student’s ability to pass judgement on data a student’s ability to pass judgement on data

42 Divergent/ critical thinking cont. Types of critical thinking from students An intuitive response An intuitive response A more evaluative thinking A more evaluative thinking A more rational basis requiring evidence and elements of reasoning A more rational basis requiring evidence and elements of reasoning The highest levels of creative thinking - generating new ideas or concepts The highest levels of creative thinking - generating new ideas or concepts All of these plus metacognitive acknowledgement affect how these types of thinking helped/hindered their learning All of these plus metacognitive acknowledgement affect how these types of thinking helped/hindered their learning (Green, 2009)

43 Self-regulated learning in high- achieving students Dai & Feldhusen (1999) analysis of Thinking Styles Inventory Dai & Feldhusen (1999) analysis of Thinking Styles Inventory Discovery learning suits learning styles of some learners Discovery learning suits learning styles of some learners Opposite styles tend to be mutually exclusive Opposite styles tend to be mutually exclusive Possible correlation between personalities of introverts and extroverts and their learning style impedes or facilitates learning in guided discovery Possible correlation between personalities of introverts and extroverts and their learning style impedes or facilitates learning in guided discovery Possible impact of GATS underachievers Possible impact of GATS underachievers

44 Session 2 Programs and provisions Programs and provisions Acceleration Acceleration Curriculum differentiation Curriculum differentiation Independent study Independent study Technology for GATS Technology for GATS

45 VanTassel-Baska. (2004). Curriculum for gifted and talented students. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

46 Curriculum provision to match the needs of the gifted students challenge challenge pace pace complexity complexity explicit instruction and scaffolding but not the degree of support and repetition required by less able students explicit instruction and scaffolding but not the degree of support and repetition required by less able students (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2004)

47 Planning for learning Criteria to evaluate the suitability of any curriculum or program for gifted learners: Would all students be involved in such learning experiences? Would all students be involved in such learning experiences? Could all students participate in such learning experiences? Could all students participate in such learning experiences? Should all students be expected to succeed in such learning experiences? Should all students be expected to succeed in such learning experiences? (Passow, 1988 )

48 Planning for strengths pose open ended questions pose open ended questions problem finding and problem solving problem finding and problem solving discussion and debate discussion and debate individual reading and writing individual reading and writing futures/speculation futures/speculation individual research and experimentation individual research and experimentation (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2004)

49 Unit planning Curriculum compacting: identifying the outcomes identifying the outcomes pre-testing the outcomes pre-testing the outcomes eliminating areas of repetition eliminating areas of repetition streamlining the learning experience streamlining the learning experience offering enrichment/extension/acceleration offering enrichment/extension/acceleration documenting the process documenting the process

50 Models of curriculum differentiation Bloom’s (1956) - Taxonomy of educational objectives Bloom’s (1956) - Taxonomy of educational objectives Anderson/Krathwohl (2001) - Taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing Anderson/Krathwohl (2001) - Taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing Maker (1982) - content-process-product-learning environment model Maker (1982) - content-process-product-learning environment model Williams (1993) – Cognitive- affective interaction model Williams (1993) – Cognitive- affective interaction model Kaplan’s (1993) - Content-process-product model Kaplan’s (1993) - Content-process-product model Osborn-Parnes (1950s) - Creative problem solving model Osborn-Parnes (1950s) - Creative problem solving model Kohlberg (1971) – Moral reasoning stages model Kohlberg (1971) – Moral reasoning stages model Renzulli & Reis (1985) – Schoolwide enrichment model Renzulli & Reis (1985) – Schoolwide enrichment model Taylor (1968) – Multiple talents model Taylor (1968) – Multiple talents model

51 Guided inquiry Outcomes Outcomes Construct meaning Construct meaning Think creatively, be innovators Think creatively, be innovators Solve problems Solve problems (Kuhlthau & Heinstrom, 2005)

52 Effective teaching (intellectual engagement) characterised by: Thoughtful design of learning tasks that include the following features: They require and instil deep thinking They require and instil deep thinking They immerse the student in disciplinary inquiry They immerse the student in disciplinary inquiry They are connected to the world outside the classroom. They are connected to the world outside the classroom. They have intellectual rigour. They have intellectual rigour. They involve substantive conversation. They involve substantive conversation. (Todd, 2009)

53 Research synthesis Rogers (1991, 1999, 2004, 2010) – best practices archsynthesis.htm Rogers (1991, 1999, 2004, 2010) – best practices archsynthesis.htm archsynthesis.htm archsynthesis.htm Ability comparisons Ability comparisons Instructional management and persuasive/program description, theoretical Instructional management and persuasive/program description, theoretical Individualisation Individualisation Grouping Grouping Acceleration Acceleration Instructional delivery Instructional delivery Learner preferences & differences Learner preferences & differences Curricular adaptations Curricular adaptations Content, process, product Content, process, product

54 Instructional delivery GATS more likely to retain science, mathematics & foreign language content – when taught 2-3 times faster than “normal” class pace GATS more likely to retain science, mathematics & foreign language content – when taught 2-3 times faster than “normal” class pace GATS more likely to forget/ mislearn science, mathematics & foreign language content – when drilled & reviewed more than 2-3 times after mastery GATS more likely to forget/ mislearn science, mathematics & foreign language content – when drilled & reviewed more than 2-3 times after mastery Compacting = 2/3 rule Compacting = 2/3 rule Whole to part concept teaching Whole to part concept teaching

55 Rogers conclusions Instructional management – moderate correlation Instructional management – moderate correlation Research (lots) vs literature (more) Research (lots) vs literature (more) Grouping ≠ Grouping ≠ Individualisation / acceleration √ Individualisation / acceleration √ Instructional delivery - less documentation Instructional delivery - less documentation Curriculum Curriculum Research = 1/10 th literature Research = 1/10 th literature GAT emphasis – how to organise learners not so much how or what they will be taught GAT emphasis – how to organise learners not so much how or what they will be taught

56 Implications Significance of: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in changing mental load (Gagné, 2003; Paas, Tuovinen & van Merriënboer, 2003) intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in changing mental load (Gagné, 2003; Paas, Tuovinen & van Merriënboer, 2003) interaction between individual and subject matter (Kuhn, 2007) interaction between individual and subject matter (Kuhn, 2007) flexibility, variety of problem-solving strategies important (Kuhn, 2007; Treffinger, 2005; VanTassel-Baska, 2003) flexibility, variety of problem-solving strategies important (Kuhn, 2007; Treffinger, 2005; VanTassel-Baska, 2003)

57 Considerations level and types of resources level and types of resources higher degree of complexity of content higher degree of complexity of content development of higher level cognitive process development of higher level cognitive process complex & abstract concepts complex & abstract concepts quality not quantity quality not quantity student-selected content according to interest student-selected content according to interest

58 Additional strategies Using pre-assessment to compact the core (Pt 2 Module 5A) Using pre-assessment to compact the core (Pt 2 Module 5A) Using tiered assignment or assessment tasks (Pt 2 of Module 5B) Using tiered assignment or assessment tasks (Pt 2 of Module 5B) Accelerating the pace to allow for independent study (Extension level of this module) Accelerating the pace to allow for independent study (Extension level of this module) Flexible grouping Flexible grouping Designing independent research tasks (Pt 2 Module 5B) Designing independent research tasks (Pt 2 Module 5B) (Gross et al, 2004)

59 Technology - Instruction Tertiary institutions no longer regard information literacy as a future goal but as assumed knowledge Tertiary institutions no longer regard information literacy as a future goal but as assumed knowledge Internet = environment for students to explore and evaluate information Internet = environment for students to explore and evaluate information Internet = a vital link for planning extension & enrichment programs for gifted students (rural) Internet = a vital link for planning extension & enrichment programs for gifted students (rural) Learner-centred learning Learner-centred learning

60 Democratisation of opportunity Students driving the digital revolution in education (Spender, 2007) Students driving the digital revolution in education (Spender, 2007) Rural and remote students Rural and remote students Virtual schools Virtual schools Tutors via videoconferencing Tutors via videoconferencing Mentors Mentors

61 e-learning – just-in-time 1. The capacity for analytical and critical thinking and for creative problem-solving 2. Learning less dependent on memorisation 3. The ability to engage in independent and reflective learning 4. Information literacy 5. The capacity for enterprise, initiative and creativity 6. An appreciation of, and respect for, diversity 7. The skills required for collaborative and multidisciplinary work 8. An appreciation of, and a responsiveness to, change

62 Technology in gifted education Individualised learning – project based Individualised learning – project based Student preference for independent learning and domain specific focus Student preference for independent learning and domain specific focus Extension and enrichment opportunities e.g. acceleration Extension and enrichment opportunities e.g. acceleration Internet conduit for: connecting GATS, resources, opportunities Internet conduit for: connecting GATS, resources, opportunities Acquirers/ retrievers/ constructors/ presenters (Stettler, 1998) Acquirers/ retrievers/ constructors/ presenters (Stettler, 1998) Increase in personal productivity Increase in personal productivity Exposed to emerging innovations Exposed to emerging innovations Creatively differentiated curricula Creatively differentiated curricula Cognitive load high in online environment (van Merriënboer & Ayers, 2005) Cognitive load high in online environment (van Merriënboer & Ayers, 2005)

63 Learner-centred learning Domains and factors influencing this: Domains and factors influencing this: Cognitive and metacognitive Cognitive and metacognitive Creative Creative Social Social Affective – Introverts and extroverts Affective – Introverts and extroverts Individual personality Individual personality Paradigm shift of leadership Paradigm shift of leadership (Handa, M. C., 2009)

64 GATS learning in a digital age GATS learning in a digital age Creative problem solving – GATS rarely adopt a single strategy - choices tend to be domain driven rather than metacognitive information Creative problem solving – GATS rarely adopt a single strategy - choices tend to be domain driven rather than metacognitive information Higher-order thinking skills - strategic thinking Higher-order thinking skills - strategic thinking Interpretative analysis Interpretative analysis Adaptation to rapid change Adaptation to rapid change Time management Time management Pace of learning Pace of learning Self-directed – establishes own goals makes own decisions Self-directed – establishes own goals makes own decisions Increase motivation/ ownership Increase motivation/ ownership Arena of acceptance Arena of acceptance Risk-takers – does not limit potential of learner Risk-takers – does not limit potential of learner Access course content at appropriate level Access course content at appropriate level

65 GATS learning in a digital age (cont) Flexibility of new media Flexibility of new media Producers vs repositories Producers vs repositories Positioned to discover rather than receive key concepts & principles Positioned to discover rather than receive key concepts & principles Divergent thinking/ creativity - including students gifted in technology (Siegle, 2004) Divergent thinking/ creativity - including students gifted in technology (Siegle, 2004) Analytical thinking – problem ambiguity, structure, insight Analytical thinking – problem ambiguity, structure, insight Self-directed Self-directed Intellectual curiosity Intellectual curiosity Facility for abstraction Facility for abstraction Complex thought processes Complex thought processes (Silverman, 1993; VanTassel-Baska, 1993; Rogers, 2002; Davis and Rimm, 2004)

66 Online extension & cognition Matching GATS with appropriate programming e.g. Matching GATS with appropriate programming e.g. Web quests Web quests Wikis Wikis Blogs Blogs Podcasts Podcasts Virtual worlds and Avatars Virtual worlds and Avatars Web pages and design Web pages and design Online databases Online databases Gender cognitive efficiencies (McLester, 1998; O’Boyle, 2002) Gender cognitive efficiencies (McLester, 1998; O’Boyle, 2002)

67 Multi-media learning: Instructional design methods across different media Guided inquiry – simulations Guided inquiry – simulations Graphic organisers/ concept maps Graphic organisers/ concept maps Problem solving with spreadsheets Problem solving with spreadsheets Project-based learning (Brooks-Young, 2008) Project-based learning (Brooks-Young, 2008) Visual literacies Visual literacies CAD software CAD software Music Music E-books E-books

68 Centre for Learning Innovation (CLI) – differentiation tools Digital media Digital media Smart light technology Smart light technology Documentaries Documentaries Spreadsheets for Mathematics Spreadsheets for Mathematics Activstudio support for teachers (IWB) Activstudio support for teachers (IWB) What’s your story? (Eng digital stories - Belonging) What’s your story? (Eng digital stories - Belonging) The world of languages online The world of languages online Graphics technology tools Graphics technology tools Seeing Australia on screen Seeing Australia on screen

69 Others Webquests Strategies for webquests Filamentality CAP _intro.html _intro.html _intro.html _intro.html

70 Thinking skills summary Thinking skills that a longer term WebQuest activity might require include these (from Marzano, 1992): 1. Comparing: Identifying and articulating similarities and differences between things. 2. Classifying: Grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. 3. Inducing: Inferring unknown generalizations or principles from observations or analysis. 4. Deducing: Inferring unstated consequences and conditions from given principles and generalizations. 5. Analysing errors: Identifying and articulating errors in one's own or others' thinking. 6. Constructing support: Constructing a system of support or proof for an assertion. 7. Abstraction: Identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern of information. 8. Analysing perspectives: Identifying and articulating personal perspectives about issues.

71 Instructional quality Learn from those already familiar with online delivery Learn from those already familiar with online delivery rural and remote students (Belcastro, 2002) rural and remote students (Belcastro, 2002) Frameworks for instruction Frameworks for instruction Direct instruction vs discovery learning Direct instruction vs discovery learning Bi- and Multimodal Bi- and Multimodal Extraneous information Extraneous information Cognitive load Cognitive load

72 School leaders Listen Listen Promote Promote Acclaim Acclaim Celebrate Celebrate


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