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Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning in everyday lessons.

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1 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning in everyday lessons

2 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Objectives  To identify the key features of assessment for learning in high-quality teaching and learning  To identify strategies for improving assessment for learning Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.1

3 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning – definitions ‘In this paper … the term assessment refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers, and by their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.’ Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) ‘Assessment for learning involves:  gathering and interpreting evidence about students’ learning; and  learners and their teachers using that evidence to decide where students are in their learning, where they are going and how to take the next steps.’ Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.2

4 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Assessment for learning – key characteristics Assessment for learning:  is embedded in a view of teaching and learning of which it is an essential part;  involves sharing learning goals with pupils;  aims to help pupils to know and recognise the standards they are aiming for;  involves pupils in [peer and] self-assessment;  provides feedback which leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take them;  involves both teacher and pupils reviewing and reflecting on assessment data [information]. Assessment for learning: beyond the black box, Assessment Reform Group (1999) Assessment for learning in everyday lessons OHT 1.3

5 Key Stage 3 National Strategy The importance of sharing objectives with pupils Plans should help teachers make clear to pupils:  lesson objectives (what is taught and learned – what the pupils should know, understand, be able to do, or be aware of as a result of the lesson);  the big picture (the broad purpose of the lesson, which may directly refer to longer-term objectives/targets and how the lesson links to other lessons). Planning lessons OHT 3.2

6 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Writing objectives: useful stems  know that … (knowledge: factual information, for example names, places, symbols, formulae, events);  develop / be able to … (skills: using knowledge, applying techniques, analysing information, etc.);  understand how/why … (understanding: concepts, reasons, effects, principles, processes,etc.);  develop / be aware of … (attitudes and values: empathy, caring, sensitivity towards social issues, feelings, moral issues, etc.). By the end of the lesson pupils will: Objectives may also focus on how pupils learn. Planning lessons OHT 3.3

7 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Key elements of good lesson plans Good lesson plans are brief but usually have:  lesson objectives which can be shared with pupils;  a clear structure for the lesson;  brief notes on key questions and teaching points;  brief notes on specific activities;  brief notes relating to needs of individuals or groups (for example, SEN or G&T);  a note of how any additional support will be used;  reference to subject issues, for example developing vocabulary;  references to relevant resources;  an indication of any homework to be set. Planning lessons OHT 3.4

8 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Questioning

9 Importance of questioning Questioning is a critical skill for teachers because it is:  the most common form of interaction between teacher and pupil;  an element of virtually every type and model of lesson;  a key method of providing appropriate challenge for all pupils;  an important influence on the extent of progress made;  the most immediate and accessible way for a teacher to assess learning. Questioning OHT 4.2

10 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Purposes of questioning  To interest, engage and challenge pupils  To check on prior knowledge  To stimulate recall and use of existing knowledge and experience in order to create new understanding and meaning  To focus thinking on key concepts and issues  To extend pupils’ thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluative  To lead pupils through a planned sequence which progressively establishes key understandings  To promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the formulation of hypotheses  To promote pupils’ thinking about the way they have learned Questioning OHT 4.3

11 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pitfalls of questioning  asking too many closed questions;  asking pupils questions to which they can respond with a simple yes or no answer;  asking too many short-answer, recall-based questions;  asking bogus ‘guess what I’m thinking’ questions;  starting all questions with the same stem; It is easy to fall into the trap of: Questioning OHT 4.4a

12 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  pursuing red herrings;  dealing ineffectively with incorrect answers or misconceptions;  focusing on a small number of pupils and not involving the whole class;  making the sequence of questions too rigid;  not giving pupils time to reflect, or to pose their own questions;  asking questions when another strategy might be more appropriate. Questioning OHT 4.4b Pitfalls of questioning It is easy to fall into the trap of:

13 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Bloom’s taxomony of questioning  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation Questioning OHT 4.5

14 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Effective questioning  reinforces and revisits the learning objectives;  includes ‘staging’ questions to draw pupils towards key understanding or to increase the level of challenge in a lesson as it proceeds;  involves all pupils;  engages pupils in thinking for themselves;  promotes justification and reasoning;  creates an atmosphere of trust where pupils’ opinions and ideas are valued; Effective questioning: Questioning OHT 4.6a

15 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  shows connections between previous and new learning;  encourages pupils to speculate and hypothesise;  encourages pupils to ask as well as to ‘receive’ questions;  encourages pupils to listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher. Questioning OHT 4.6b Effective questioning Effective questioning:

16 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Explaining

17 Types of explanation  Concepts  Similarities and differences  Cause and effect  Purposes  Processes Explaining OHT 5.2

18 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Characteristics of explanations  Keys  The ‘tease’ or hook  Use of voice and body  Signposts  Props  Humour  Examples and non-examples  Connections to pupils’ experience  Questions Explaining OHT 5.3

19 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Modelling

20 When learning a new skill it helps to:  see somebody do it;  hear somebody thinking aloud about what they are doing and why;  hear somebody explaining what they are doing as they go;  be able to ask questions about the process as it is happening;  slow the process down to look at what is happening and ask questions;  see the process demonstrated visually;  make time to discuss what has been done. Modelling OHT 6.2

21 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Why model?  To show how something is done  To make best use of the teacher’s expertise  To induct pupils into new skills and understanding  To give pupils an insight into the principles and concepts that lie beneath new skills and techniques  To scaffold learning by supported, structured activity  To help pupils on the way to independence Modelling OHT 6.3

22 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Diamond ranking  The purpose of ‘diamond ranking’ is to provoke discussion or reflection about the relative importance of a range of factors. It encourages a focus on the single most important factor, then the next two most important, the next three and so on.  In your group of four, select nine cards and agree on their relative importance. Arrange them as follows: Most important Least important Modelling OHT 6.5

23 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What does effective modelling involve?  ‘Thinking aloud’ and being totally explicit about the thinking process  Showing precisely how  Making visible and explicit the ‘structure’ of the process, concept or knowledge  Breaking down the process into a series of manageable steps  Encouraging pupils to think for themselves or to ask their own questions  Encouraging pupils to contribute  After modelling, scaffolding the learning through shared or guided activities  Building in time for pupils to reflect on the process  Enabling pupils to do it independently Modelling OHT 6.6

24 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Starters

25 Starters  fulfil a wide range of purposes, in particular using prior knowledge to introduce new topics;  develop early levels of engagement and motivation;  help to get all pupils quickly on task and to inject a sense of pace and challenge;  are an alternative to commencing with a whole-class question-and- answer routine; Starters OHT 7.2a Starters:

26 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  create a level of challenge which is dependent upon: – prior learning; – level or order of thinking; – management of pupil response;  create an expectation that pupils will think and participate in the lesson;  create a climate of interaction and involvement;  create a sense of purpose in a part of the lesson which can be derailed by administrative and organisational tasks. Starters OHT 7.2b Starters Starters:

27 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Overcoming problems with starters  careful planning and preparation;  establishing a clear focus and dealing decisively with distractions;  rigorously adhering to planned timings;  using a variety of starter activities over time;  using activities and routines which latecomers can quickly assimilate and join (for example, the initial task in the starter is explained briefly on a card which can be picked up and read by each pupil as they enter the classroom even if they arrive late); Starters OHT 7.3a Problems can be overcome by:

28 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  skilful teacher questioning, coupled with an insistence on thinking time;  providing additional support for some individual pupils (for example, use of classroom support);  adding extra challenge for some by, for example, increasing the complexity or sophistication of the activity. Starters OHT 7.3b Overcoming problems with starters Problems can be overcome by:

29 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Some keys to successful starters  Plan the starter as a discrete element of the lesson.  Ensure that each element contributes directly to the overall lesson objectives.  Choose a type of starter that best meets those lesson objectives.  Take account of the range of learning needs of the group.  Plan for the activity to be brief and keep to your planned timings.  Make sure that your starters show progression over time.  Keep instructions clear and concise.  Deal with diversions and red herrings decisively.  Use varied and unusual routines to create motivation.  Plan for a brief conclusion at the end of the starter to consolidate the gains made.  Talk to colleagues in other subjects to exchange ideas. Starters OHT 7.4

30 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Plenaries

31 Characteristics of plenaries Plenaries:  draw together the whole group;  summarise and take stock of learning so far;  consolidate and extend the learning;  direct pupils to the next phase of learning;  occur at strategic moments in the teaching sequence;  often occur at the end of lessons but can occur at other points in the lesson;  highlight not only what pupils learn, but how they learn;  help determine the next steps in learning. Plenaries OHT 8.2

32 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Purposes of plenaries  help pupils to crystallise, understand and remember what has been learned;  refer back to the learning objectives;  create a sense of achievement, gain and completion;  take stock of where the class has reached in a task or a sequence; Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range of purposes. In particular they: Plenaries OHT 8.3a

33 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  take learning further and deeper;  provide an opportunity for the teacher to assess learning and plan accordingly;  recognise and value the achievements of individuals and the class;  prompt deep thinking by pupils about how they have learned. Plenaries OHT 8.3b Purposes of plenaries Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range of purposes. In particular they:

34 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Other uses of plenaries Plenaries can also help teachers as they seek to:  develop and instil a habit of reflection about/on learning;  stimulate interest, curiosity and anticipation about the next phase of learning;  help pupils to change what they have learned into a form which they can communicate;  draw out applications of what has been learned;  highlight and change misconceptions which have developed;  highlight progress made and revise personal or group targets;  develop assessment for learning;  help develop pupils’ perception of themselves as learners. Plenaries OHT 8.4

35 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Challenge

36 Key aspects of challenge  Challenge is a prerequisite of learning.  Getting the level of challenge right is crucial.  Self-confidence and self-belief are necessary to meet learning challenges.  Challenge needs to be realistic.  Challenge in classrooms needs to be anxiety-free.  Mistakes need to be accepted as an important part of learning.  Effective learners take risks.  The higher the motivation, the higher the tolerance of frustration during learning.  Success depends upon receiving support when it is needed.  Support should encourage independence in the learner. Challenge OHT 9.2

37 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Increasing the level of challenge  Expect greater independence.  Increase pace.  Encourage metacognition and self-review.  Increase proportion of higher-order questions.  Widen the range of sources used by learners.  Introduce texts of greater density and abstraction.  Demand greater precision in language.  Expect pupils to justify answers.  Provide more opportunities to transform and apply new ideas.  Provide more open-ended, problem-solving tasks. Challenge OHT 9.3

38 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Making challenging tasks achievable  Affirm success and effort.  Prompt reflection on learning strategies.  Encourage risk taking.  Set high expectations.  Use targets and goals based on prior attainment.  Use rewards to build learning stamina.  Break challenge down into small, achievable steps.  Monitor progress and intervene early.  Provide feedback. Challenge OHT 9.4

39 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Engagement

40 When are pupils more likely to be engaged in their work?  they are clear about its purpose because the work has been well explained;  the work builds on their prior attainment; they are able to do the work but find it challenging;  they are emotionally, physically and intellectually involved by the tasks set;  the presentation, variety and structure of the work and activities generate curiosity and interest;  they have opportunities to ask questions and try out ideas;  they can see what they have achieved and how they have made progress;  they get a feeling of satisfaction and enjoyment from the work. Pupils are more likely to be engaged in their work when: Engagement OHT 10.4

41 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Approaches to improving levels of engagement  the physical state of the pupil;  the emotional state of the pupil;  the learning style of the pupil;  the pupil's prior attainment and knowledge. To create an effective climate for learning, we need to think about: Engagement OHT 10.5

42 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Principles for teaching thinking

43 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What is outstanding performance? Some common responses  Seeing patterns in data  Making links with other topics or areas  Thinking laterally  Being creative  Generalising  Solving problems  Checking and refining solutions  Seeing different viewpoints  Using existing knowledge  Knowing a lot  Having a good memory  Fast processing of information  Working with others Principles for teaching thinking OHT 11.3

44 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Thinking together

45 Key Stage 3 National Strategy What kind of talk do we want?  When you ask pupils to work and talk together, what sort of talk do you wish to take place?  If you had to compile a list of up to five rules that pupils should follow in order to talk together effectively, what would your rules be? Thinking together OHT 12.5

46 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Exploratory talk In exploratory talk:  pupils and teachers engage critically but constructively with each other’s ideas;  contributions build on previous comments;  relevant information is offered for joint consideration;  there is speculation;  pupils give reasons for their views and seek them from others; Thinking together OHT 12.6a

47 Key Stage 3 National Strategy ‘It is an effective way of using language to think …the process of education should ensure that every child is aware of its value and be able to use it effectively … However, observational research evidence suggests that very little of it naturally occurs in classrooms when children work together in groups.’ Mercer, N. (2000)  reasoning is visible in the talk. Thinking together OHT 12.6b Exploratory talk

48 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Ground rules for talk Everyone should:  be actively encouraged to contribute;  offer opinions and ideas;  provide reasons for their opinions and ideas;  share all relevant information;  feel free to disagree if they have a good reason;  ask other people for information and reasons;  treat other people’s ideas with respect;  try to come to an agreement; and …  change their minds if they are persuaded by good reasoning. Thinking together OHT 12.7

49 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Using ground rules for talk  Should pupils be taught how to talk together effectively in your school? Why / why not? If so, when and how? – In Year 7 or later? – As a ‘stand alone’ activity or as part of subject teaching?  What difficulties would there be in trying to pursue this?  How could these be addressed? Thinking together OHT 12.8

50 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Reflection

51 The importance of reflection  Reflecting on learning helps thinking and learning.  Reflection is particularly important when tackling challenging tasks.  Thinking about learning is hard without words.  Opportunities for reflection need to be planned.  Reflection promotes skills needed both for tests and for meeting challenges in everyday life. Reflections OHT 13.2

52 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Advantages of awareness of learning  Independent learning requires the learner to be able to monitor and regulate their learning.  Knowing more about learning makes it less of a mystery and affects confidence and self-esteem.  Reflection helps generalising about learning.  Generalising helps to transfer learning and helps pupils to make connections between subjects. Reflections OHT 13.3

53 Key Stage 3 National Strategy  Identify thinking words for your subject, which are appropriate for your pupils.  Display some thinking words on A4 pieces of paper, complete with definitions, and, after a suitable activity, allow pupils to choose words which match their mental processes.  Plan opportunities to develop the use of these words in plenaries. Identifying and using thinking words Reflections OHT 13.4a Developing reflection and metacognition

54 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Developing reflection and metacognition  Model some thinking processes and label your mental processes for pupils.  Encourage pupils to think and talk about thinking processes and strategies they might use before they tackle a problem.  Encourage them to identify occasions when they use particular processes out of school.  Give pupils opportunities to think and talk about their work in small groups before they are asked to contribute to whole-class discussion.  Give pupils learning logs to record their thoughts on what and how they have learned. Reflections OHT 13.4b


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