Presentation on theme: "Decentralized Governance & Panchayati Raj Scenario In Rajasthan Presentation for ZP Members of Goa 20.1.10 Dr. Anita Professor & Coordinator (PRI-Training)"— Presentation transcript:
Decentralized Governance & Panchayati Raj Scenario In Rajasthan Presentation for ZP Members of Goa 20.1.10 Dr. Anita Professor & Coordinator (PRI-Training) Indira Gandhi Panchayati Raj & Gramin Vikas Sansthan (SIRD-Rajasthan), Jaipur
Human Resource Profile of Panchayati Raj Institutions in Rajasthan Zila Pramukhs (District Chiefs) – 33 (w.e.f. from 2010 Elections) Zila Parishad Members - 1013 Pradhans (Block Chiefs) - 248 Panchayat Samiti Members - 5273 Sarpanches (Village Panchayat Chiefs) - 9166 Ward Panches – 1,05,000 (appx.) Total No. of Elected Representatives – 1,20,500 (appx.) Total No. of Elected Women Representatives– 50% by Reservation & 5-10% likely to contest against general seats
73 rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1993 Salient Features: Mandatory Provisions Continuity of PRIs – Elections every 5 years Uniformity – 3 tier structure across the country Reservations – One third for Women at all levels of PRIs and in proportion to population for SC & ST Democratic Decentralization – Gram Sabha recognized as the village parliament to plan, prioritize, implement, audit and review all development activities Separate State-Election and Finance Commissions
Discretionary Provisions of the Amendment Powers and Authority Defined for PRIs: as per Article – 243(G) Preparation of Plans for Economic Development and Social Justice Implementation of Schemes for Economic Development and Social Justice, as may be entrusted to them by the state government – as per the XI Schedule (29 Subjects)
Positive Action Taken: Status of Decentralization Processes in Rajasthan 3 Tier PRI – Set up in place: Electoral Devolution has happened ! Time bound 5 yrly. elections held in 1995, 2000 & 2005 & fresh Elections in process : Jan-Feb. 2010 Political Reservations for SC, ST, OBC in proportion to population and 1/3 rd Reservation for Women, introduced since 1995- making the excluded- a majority voice! With 2010 elections, reservation for women has been raised to 50% at all levels Now amended Act would enable 50% Reservation for Women w.e.f. 2010- feminization of Decentralized Governance bound to lead to greater humanization of development! State Election & Finance Commns. set up in tandem with the electoral cycle of PRIs Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act, 1994 and Rules, 1996 in force with Schedule- I, II & III respectively- laying down powers & functions of Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zila Parishads- subject to directions, specified by the State Govt. from time to time Panchayat Extension over Scheduled Areas Act (PESA) enforced in Rajasthan w.e.f. June, 1999 but framing of Rules still pending – hence a paper law
Positive Action Taken: Status of Decentralization Processes in Rajasthan Gram Sabhas being held since 1995 initially on biannual basis & w.e.f. 2001 onwards on quarterly basis Ward Sabhas being held since 2000, Chaired by Ward Panch– after the 2000 Amendment of Rajasthan’s Panchayati Raj Act; making Ward (average population size-300-500) as the pivot for development planning & review Right to Information and Social Audit – special integral features of Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act & Rules District Planning Committees formed– as per 74 th Constnal. Amendment, under the Chairpersonship of Zila Pramukh, to facilitate the process of Decentralized Planning, leading to District Plans, feeding into State Plan (Started from 11 th Plan onwards- 2007) Six Standing Committees at all levels of PRIs are elected since 2000, for facilitating inclusive governance- participatory monitoring and supervision of devolved subjects Special Mission and Task Force on Panchayati Raj set up by Govt. of Rajasthan headed by the Chief Minister & Chief Secretary, respectively
Perspective & Progress of PRI-Cell Systematic Approach to Training of PRIs: 2000 AD Onwards TNA- 2000, 2004 & 2009 TIA - 2004 under SDC supported PRISMO TPRIs- 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007(BRGF), 2008 (Ref. Trg. SC,ST, ♀ ) & 2009 (Ref. Trg. for all) & next Orientation Campaign in 2010 TOT-2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 & next in 2010 TMD– 2000, 2002,2005, 2007 (BRGF), 2008( Ref.Trg.SC,ST, ♀ ) 2009 (Ref. Trg. for all) 2010- ( Orientation Trg., for all PRIs after next elections) in Progress Decentralized Training Cycle of PRIs: Rajasthan
Positive Action Taken: Status of Decentralization Processes in Rajasthan 16 out of 29 Subject-specific functions devolved to PRIs, 2000 onwards – related to 18 departments; however, incomplete devolution, whereby functions have been transferred, without transfer of concerned functionaries and funds “Training for All” Goal of National Training Policy achieved for PRI Sector in 2002(for EWRs), 2003 & 2005- for all PRIs, again in 2007 (BRGF Distts.) & 2008-09 – Refresher PRI-trainings- making Rajasthan emerge as a pioneering state in terms of Capacity Building of PRIs in a cascade mode of Decentralized Trainings
Activity Mapping The exercise on the division of functional responsibilities between the three tiers of the Panchayati Raj System on the basis of activity mapping has been completed for the following 18 departments:- I.C.D.S., Social Welfare, Agriculture, Soil- Conservation, P.H.E.D., M.D.M- Education- Elementary/ Secondary, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Health and Family Welfare, Irrigation, Forest, Industry, Food, Tourism, P.W.D., Energy & Technical Education.
Activities transferred as per the list of 29 Subjects of 11 th Schedule to PRIs in Rajasthan : Some of the key transferred activities and staff are as under:- Agriculture/Agriculture Extension activities along with staff, up to the level of Asstt. Director transferred to Zila Parishad / Panchayat Samiti. Watershed & Soil Conservation department brought under the control of RD & PR from Agriculture Department. Irrigation Tanks up to 300 hec. Capacity transferred to Panchayat Samities along with supporting staff. Fisheries Tanks of "D" category transferred to Panchayats, "C" category to Panchayat Samities & "B" Category to Zila Parishads along with supporting staff up to level of Asstt. Director in Zila Parishad. Activities relating to Social Forestry, Farm Forestry & Minor Forest Produce transferred to Panchayat Samities along with supporting staff up to district level. Zila Parishad will decide the names of villages- as per allocation by State Government for rural electrification.
Activities transferred as per the list of 29 Subjects (Contd…) Gram Panchayats have been authorised to take up the work relating to distribution of electricity bills, if desired. Maintenance of Rural Haats transferred to Gram Panchayats from Agriculture Department. District Women Development Agency brought under Zila Parishads. Dy. Director, DWCD brought under Zila Parishad and CDPOs under Panchayat Samiti along with supporting staff & activities. Activities implemented by District Social Welfare Officer transferred to Zila Parishad along with Officers up to level of Dy. Director / Asstt. Director together with supporting staff. List of beneficiaries selected under Primer Minister Employment Scheme (PMRY) will be approved by Zila Parishad. Proposals of Small Scale Industries will be discussed in the Standing Committee of Panchayat Samities. Report received from Cabinet Committee constituted to review the functions transferred earlier alongwith funds and functionaries to PRIs and to recommend measures to strengthen them as effective units of Self Governance. Committee's report sent to Cabinet Secretariat for approval from Cabinet.
Main Deficits: Road Blocks to Decentralization in Rajasthan Half baked decentralization moves – responsibilities devolved without any control over staff and budgets No untied funds devolved to PRIs and untied funds to the tune of Rs. 1 crore devolved to DPCs from 2008-09- by previous govt. & now again likely to be stalled PESA- enforced in Rajasthan from June, 1999 – Rules still not framed – a paper law- only electoral devolution has enabled tribal leaders to become authorized chairpersons of PRIs in the TSP-area Line departments resist transfer of staff & budget control to be devolved to PRIs MLA & MP-LAD quota schemes – anti-PRIs- expenditures incurred are as per discretion of MLA/MP & not responding to Gram Sabha approved development plans Quorum in respect of Women, SC, ST, OBC generally not fulfilled in Ward and Gram Sabhas; even general quorum fulfilled through ‘facipulation’
Main Deficits: Road Blocks to Decentralization in Rajasthan Government functionaries resist Right to Information and Social Audit- evolving ways to delay/deny access to accountable governance Government-NGO and NGO-PRI linkages distrust & conflict-ridden Decentralized planning structures in place but bottom-up need-based planning process and commensurate fund-flow lacking- esp. as untied funds Standing Committees, District Planning Committee, Ward and Gram Sabhas need to be energized & made vibrant platforms of democratic governance Resource constraint in terms of money & manpower ails all levels of PRIs & paralyses local self governance
Main Deficits: Road Blocks to Decentralization in Rajasthan Lack of Political Will to truly empower PRIs- both at Central & State Govt. levels still persists Bureaucratic resistance to institutions of local self governance Low level of education specially at Ward Panch level and Women/SC/ST PRI leaders hampers their effective functioning Low level of honoraria and perks for PRI leaders & inter-state variations thereof, violate the spirit of Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 Caste and party politics vitiate democratic functioning of PRIs Village community by and large alienated from participating in Ward and Gram Sabhas- on account of non-fulfillment of Gram Sabha proposals
Towards Real Empowerment of PRIs: Two Pronged Strategy Required StructuralProcessual Complete Transfer of Functions, Functionaries & Funds w.r.t. devolved subjects- without further delay GO-NGO interface to be strengthened for sustained Capacity Building of PRIs w.r.t. transferred functions, functionaries & funds All Devt. Functionaries to be made accountable to PRIs & Gram Sabhas & report to respective PRI regularly NGOs/CBOs to provide Planning, IEC & technical- support for mobilizing active Ward and Gram Sabhas
Towards Real Empowerment of PRIs: Structural Processual Transfer of untied funds to DPCs, PRIs, Gram and Ward Sabhas for operationalizing Local Plans- through an earmarking of funds for each level from Schemes, SFC, CFC-funding Top priority to invest in Capacity Building of PRIs, for mobilizing own income/ resources with community support & effective financial management of all funds received i.e. from CFC/CSS/SFC & own income Need to augment staffing pattern of PRIs in proportion to no. of functions transferred Capacity Building of Staff & ERs of PRIs at all levels needs to be sustained for effective local governance
Towards Real Empowerment of PRIs: Structural Processual To ensure better dividends on investment in Capacity Building of ERs of PRIs, the tenure for rotation of reservation needs to be increased by one more term i.e. giving each ER of reserved category- a ten years tenure After elections SC,ST, OBC & Women ERs need to be exposed to basic orientation training, within 3 months of being elected, with a view to instil desired Knowledge & Skills in first time entrants in governance For the non-literate ERs, a special functional literacy campaign needs to be organized immediately after elections, with the support of Literacy & Continuing Education Department- now being spearheaded by ‘Sakshar Bharat Mission’- to be led by PRIs NGOs/CBOs/NYKs /PRIs need to quickly identify the non-literate category of newly ERs & help to link them with an intensive functional literacy campaign in their Block/GP itself, with the help of literacy department & dovetailing funding support from Sakshar Bharat funds
Towards Real Empowerment of PRIs: StructuralProcessual For providing continuous hand- holding support to PRIs beyond training, need to establish PRCs (Panchayat Resource Centers) at the block level, with desired experts to be hired- funds already available for this purpose under BRGF Interim Panchayat at the block level to identify & hire suitable experts-viz. in areas of Engineering, Accounts-keeping, Micro- Finance, Public Health, Gender & Social Scientist etc. for guiding Gram Panchayats on a day to day basis, in the PRC All Panchayats to be computerized & equipped with relevant manpower trained in computerized record keeping & providing package of services to village community viz.- payment of water & electricity bills, giving copy of land records, birth, marriage & death certificates, etc. for a user service charge- in Rajasthan- Rajeev Gandhi e-centres being created in every Gram Panchayat Panchayats to be trained in e-governance & linked online with all 3 tiers of PRIs, the state department and the Central Ministry for online access to data, related to progress under various schemes, financial progress, physical progress & progress on HDI- indicators